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2. In 3804 crowns, how many pieces each 78. 6d.?

3804 crs. = 7608 — -crs. : 78. 6d. = 3 — -crs.
7608 ; 3= 2536.

Ans. 2536.
3. In 7284 florins, each 3s. 2d. how many pounds ?
3s. 2d. = 19 two-pences.

£1 = 120 two-pences.
7284 f. = 7284 X 19 two-pences.
7284 x 19 607 X 19 11533

3

=1153 -
120

10
10

10 Ans. £1153o. 4. How many times will a wheel 16 ft. in circumference turn round in a distance of 24 mi. 3 fur. 25 po. ?

mi. fur. po.
163ft. = 33 - }ft.

24: 3:25
8

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5. A grocer wishes to weigh up 8cwt. 2qrs. 20lbs. of sugar into an equal number of parcels of 4 lbs. 6 lbs. 8 lbs. 10 lbs. 12 lbs. and 14 lbs. each, what number will he have of cach, and how many altogether ? Weight of 1 parcel of each kind = (4 +6+8+ 10 + 12 + 14) lbs.

= 54 lbs.
cwt. qrs. lbs.
8 : 2 : 20
4

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1.

TO EXPRESS IN LOWER TERMS THE VALUE OF A FRACTION OF A

SIMPLE QUANTITY.

Rule. Multiply the fraction by the number of the next lower denomination, which make up one of the higher ; reduce the result to a whole or mixed number. Proceed in the same manner with the fractional part, if any, till the lowest denomination required is arrived at. If the fraction be a recurring decimal, it must be reduced to a vulgar fraction.

EXAMPLES.
1. Express in lower terms the value of no of a crown.

7 7 X 5 35 11
-- cr

.. 8. ニー8. E32-s.
12

12 12 12 11 11 X 12

7 d. = 11 d.

..- cr. = 2 s. 11 d. 12 12

12

3. =

2. Express in lower terms ii of a cubic yard.
9 X 27
243

1
- cub. yd. =

cub. ft. =- cub. ft. = 22— cub. ft.
11
11
11

11
1
1728

1
cub. ft. = cub. in. = 157- cub. in.
11
11

11
9

1
cub. yd. = 22 cub. ft. 157 — cub. in.
11

11
3. Express in lower terms .009674 of £1.

.009674 £.

20

...

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4.2000 d.

Ans. £3:11s. : 4:20.

5. Find the value of 10714285 of £5.

10714285 10
10714285 of £5=

X 100 s.
99999900
10714275

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II.

TO EXPRESS IN HIGHER TERMS THE VALUE OF A FRACTION OF A

SIMPLE QUANTITY.

mi. =

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Rule. Divide the fraction by the number of the lower denomination which make up one of the next higher, and the quotient in like manner, till the denomination required is arrived at. If the fraction be a vulgar fraction, reduce it to its lowest terms; if a decimal, leave it unaltered.

EXAMPLES. 1. Express 4-yd. as a fraction of a mile.

3
3

3
- yd. =

mi.
4 4 x 1760 7040
2. Express 4 pole as a fraction of a league.

3
3

3
- po. =-

mi.
7
7 x 40 7 X 40 X 8

1

lea. =- lea.

7 X 40 X 8 X 3 2240 3 Express .345895 of 1s. as the decimal of £1.

.345895 s. 20

.01729475 £. Ans.

fur. =

4. Express 6.461538 of ld. as decimal of £l.

6,461538 d. 12

.538461 s. 20

,02692307 £. Ans.

F2

III.

TO EXPRESS A COMPOUND QUANTITY AS A FRACTION OF ANY

SIMPLE QUANTITY.

Rule. Begin with the quantity of the lowest denomination, express this as a fraction of the next higher. Add to the result the quantity of this denomination, and express the sum as a fraction of the next higher. Proceed in the same manner through all the quantities, and if the result be not in the required denomination, express it by Case II. But if the required denomination be arrived at before all the quantit have been us those not used must be reduced to the denomination required.

EXAMPLES. 1. Express 17 p. 4 yds. 24 ft. as a fraction of a league.

1

5
2- ft. =-yd.

2 6
5 29 29 11 29
4-yd. = - yd. =

- po.
6
6

33
29 590

590 17 — po. =

lea. 33 33 33 X 40 X 8X3

59

lea.
33X96
59

lea. Ans.

3168 2. Express £1: 13 : 6 as the decimal of £1.

4)3.0000 f.

:

po. =

-- po. =

=

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IV.

TO EXPRESS SHILLINGS, PENCE, AND FARTHINGS AS DECIMALS

OF A POUND.

Rule. Put in the 1st place of decimals 1 for every pair of shillings:in the 2nd and 3rd places, 50 for the odd shilling, if any, and 1 for every farthing besides, with 1 extra for sixpence:-in the 4th and 5th places, put 4 for every farthing above the last sixpence, and 1 extra for every 6 farth. ings:-to fill up the places after the 5th, form a fraction, whose numerator is the number of farthings above the last 6, and whose denominator is 6; convert this into a decimal, and annex the figures of the decimal to the others.

EXAMPLE. Change 17s. 73d. to the decimal of a pound.

178. 74 =.8822916 £.

V.

TO EXPRESS IN POSITIVE TERMS THE VALUE OF A DECIMAL OF

A POUND.

Rule. Take 2 shillings for every 1 in the 1st place; 1 shilling for 50 in the 2nd & 3rd, and 1 farthing for every 10ooth remaining, after subtracting 1, if the number exceed 24.

Note. This rule gives generally only approximately the value of the decimal:-if the fraction of a farthing be required, multiply the given decimal by 1000, and subtract from the product 4 per cent.--this will give the exact number of farthings: whence the true result may be easily obtained.

EXAMPLE.

Find the value of .754321 £.

.754321 £= 15s. 1d. Approx. by Rule.
But 1000 x .754321 = 754321
And 40 x .754321 = 30.17284

... No. of farthings =724.14816

.754321 £= 15s. ld. .14816 fa.

VI. TO EXPRESS IN POSITIVE TERMS THE VALUE OF A FRACTION OF

A COMPOUND QUANTITY.

Rule. Express the compound quantity in terms of any one of the denominations involved; multiply the two fractions, and reduce the results.

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EXAMPLES. 1. Express in positive terms 2 of £1:2:2.

3

11

1
2- of £1:2:2=-of £1:2-.

4

6
11 13

of £1
4 120
11 133
- X-.£.
4 120
1463 23

£= 3. £.

480 480
23 460 23
£.

S. -S.
480 480 24
23 276 1
s.

d.= 11. d.
24
24

2

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