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was truly amiable, yet, whenever brought into collision with superior talents, always showed signs of an envious and discontented state of mind. This, indeed, rarely occurred, for the individual referred to was herself highly gifted, and possessed beside many admirable qualities of mind and of heart. On such occasions, however, there might be seen the struggles of mortification and wounded pride with the better principles of grace and love. The clouded brow, the flushed cheek, the stifled sigh, the resistless tear, the petulant reply,– all told the triumph of envy. But, to the praise of grace be it told, after long and frequent battles between these antagonistic principles—envy and grace— the latter prevailed. And now, hand in hand, and heart in heart, walks forth this excellent and happy individual, alike weeping with those that weep, and rejoicing with those that rejoice: and
furnishing a bright specimen of the overcoming influence of the religion of Jesus Christ. Oh it is this which sanctifies the whole nature, body, and soul, and spirit, and makes the once proud and rebellious heart a fit residence for the Holy Ghost.
“These weapons of the holy war,
May all our readers seek to possess
themselves of these spiritual weapons !
Then shall envy, hatred, malice, and all
uncharitableness, flee away, and give
place to love, kindness, gentleness, and
liberality, and the cause of truth and righteousness be exalted in the earth. S. S. S.
3&tbittu of 33 eligious publications.
FATHERs of INDEPENDENCY in Scotland; or, Biographical Sketches of early Scottish Congregational Ministers, A.D. 1798–1851. Small 8vo. pp. 476. A. Fullarton and Co. IN the annals of Religious Revival, the Congregationalism of Scotland must ever occupy a conspicuous place. It was itself the child of such revival; and it became the instrument of an impulse which was powerfully felt from the Scottish border to the furthest limits of the Shetland and Orkney Isles. In looking back to the closing period of the French Revolution, it is not a little interesting to find that, both in England and Scotland, there was a noble band of religious men on whose minds God was graciously acting to prepare them for producing a great impression upon the age in which they lived. The era was signalised by the publication of the EvangelicAL MAGAZINE, and the formation of the London Missionary Society. These movements, originating with a few apostolic spirits, full of zeal for a new and better state of things in the churches of Christ, drew around them the great body of evangelical men, north and south of the Tweed; and the Revival of Religion which followed was shared alike by the friends of Christ, both in Scotland and England. They were, indeed, from the first, in close correspondence with each other, and were acted upon by circumstances by no means dissimilar in their ecclesiastical character and tendency. In the South, High Churchmen, and frigid Dissenters, looked on with nearly equal scorn and derision upon efforts which they deemed to be irregular and enthusiastic; —and in the North, the cold-hearted bigotry of Moderatism fulminated its anathemas upon all, in and out of the Establishment, who ventured to disturb the repose of spiritual death. All honour be to the men, north and south of the Tweed, who came “to the help of the Lord—to the help of the Lord against the mighty.” The names of Newton, Hawes, and Venn, and Scott and Eyre, in the Episcopate; of Hill, Wilks, Burder, Bogue, Waugh, and Hardcastle, among various bodies of Dissenters, in England; and of Drs. Erskine, Balfour, Davidson, and Wardlaw, and Messrs. Ewing, Innes, Haldane, Aikman, and others in Scotland, will be had in everlasting remembrance. When the flame of holy zeal for the salvation of perishing souls was kindled on the bleak mountains of Caledonia, no express plan had been formed for the establishment of churches on the Congregational plan. But the opposition which sprung up in the Estab
lishment to plans and agents who were deemed irregular, and which, in some instances, were branded as a traitorous conspiracy against the peace and good order of society, awakened inquiry, and, after a time, brought the leaders of the movement to feel that if they were to enjoy liberty for a free publication of the gospel, and a further promotion of Christian, in opposition to worldly communion, they must come out from the Establishment, and form societies instinct with the spirit of self-government. In this state of things, it is impossible to say how much this incipient movement, which was now beginning to convulse and agitate all Scotland, was indebted to the providence of God for raising up to its aid the Messrs. Haldane, men of apostolic spirit, who were willing to consecrate their time, their talents, their property, for the evangelization of their native country. We are old enough to remember the Pentecostal times in which these events occurred. Everywhere were the Missionaries, as they were opprobriously styled, spoken against; yet everywhere did they prevail. The slumbers of the Establishment, and of other religious bodies, were thoroughly disturbed. The clergy fulminated, but the people would hear the itinerant preachers; and few were the districts in all Scotland in which many precious souls were not “called out of darkness into marvellous light.” It was “a time of refreshing from the presence of the Lord,” in which all rejoiced and sympathised, except those who were wedded to pure formalism, or where ecclesiastical prejudices took the lead of their better feelings and convictions. We could wish nothing better for the independency of Scotland and England, than to see the return of such “days of the Son of man," when thousands flocked to hear the gospel of Christ; when “the Word of the Lord had free course and was glorified:” when dead and lifeless members of churches were led to discover their false position; when hardened sinners “were pricked to the heart,” and were heard crying, “What must we do to be saved f" and when the gospel was extensively propagated and settled, where, for many a long year, the trumpet had given an uncertain sound. There may have been some mistakes in the early management of Scottish Congregationalism; but, take it altogether, we see, as in the light of a sunbeam, after the experience of fifty years, and when nearly all its fathers and founders have fallen asleep, that it was God's express ordinance for arresting the progress of Moderatism and clerical bigotry; and for reviving the spirit of primitive religion in the land of Knox, and Rutherfurd, and Boston, and Erskine, and Willison. We most thoroughly believe, that Scottish Congregationalism did more to help forward the religious resorm in the Establishment, which issued in the disruption, than the most generous of the Free Church party are disposed to admit. Be this as it may, we hope that now all good men in Scotland, whether ranking in the Establishment, or belonging to communities supported by voluntary contributions, will agree in thinking that the Fathers of Scottish Independency are worthy of a monument to perpetuate the hardships they endured, the toils they encountered, the virtues they displayed, and the good they effected throughout the length and breadth of their native land. We thank Mr. Kinniburgh for his seasonable effort to carry down the names and the excellences of his brethren to posterity. He has done a good work, which will not only add to the peace and joy of his evening hour, but which will cheer and comfort many a Scottish fireside, while fathers and mothers read to their children the simple annals of these “men of God,” to whom they were indebted for the light and sanctity of their religious life. If the author of this volume, dedicated to the memory of the “Fathers of Independency in Scotland,” has not attempted a series of original Biographies, he has at least availed himself of all authentic written documents extant, and has shed much light upon the path of his heroes, by observations and facts which have come within the scope of his own knowledge. The work is carefully edited, and will prove extensively useful and acceptable. We have read many of its pages, with great emotion, as we have thought of men, once familiar to us, but whom we shall never meet again till the heavens are no more. But they still live; and the work of their hands shall never perish. May we be followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises 1 The Memoirs are Thirty-eight in number. We could have wished to see some other names of the deceased included, such as the late Rev. Joseph Gibb, of Banff. But the author very justly apologises for this omission by stating that he was unable to procure the requisite facts. The notices, all interesting, are devoted to the following individuals, some of whom were men of the highest order of sanctified humanity, and all of whom were greatly useful in their day and generation:— The Rev. Messrs. James Garie, of Perth; G. Cowie, of Huntly; James Hill, of Haddington: James Clerk, of Thurso; Peter Grant, of Blairgowrie ; Thomas Paton, of St. Andrew's: John Dunn, of Dumfrics; George Cowie, of Montrose; William Brown, of Inverury ; Thomas Smith, of Garliston; Alex
ander Arthur, of Dalkeith; John Hercus, of Greenock; William Orme, of Camberwell; John Martin, of Forres; John Aikman, of Edinburgh; John Elder, of Leven; Alexander Kerr, of Shetland; Archibald Miller, of Gatehouse; John Smith, of Blackhills; George Douglas, of Elie; William Henry, of Tooting; John Campbell, of Kingsland ; Greville Ewing, of Glasgow; William Lindsay, of Letham; Richard Penman, of Aberdeen; John Cleghorn, of Edinburgh; James Dewar, of Nairn; John Watson, of Musselburgh : Thomas Just, of Newport; George Reed, of Lerwick; Francis Dick, Edinburgh; David Russell, D.D., Dundee; Alexander Dewar, of Avoch; Alexander Knowles, of Linlithgow; Robert Aikenhead, of Kirkaldy; Peter Maclaren, of Edinburgh; Robert Caldwell, of Howden; and James Alexander Haldane, Edinburgh. All the Memoirs are arranged according to the order in which the deceased brethren were called to their rest. Few volumes of the modern press are more fitted for a wide and useful circulation than the “Fathers of Scottish Independency.”
THE LIFE of FRANCIs Lord BACON, Baron of Verulam, Wiscount St. Albans, and Lord High Chancellor of England. By the Rev. Joseph SoRTAIN, A.B., of Trinity Colleye, Dublin. Small 8vo., pp. 306. Religious Tract Society. THE veritable history of Lord Bacon has in it all the characteristics of a romance. In intellectual stature he was the prodigy of his age, and, all things considered, perhaps the greatest man that England ever produced. Yet how strangely dwarfish were his moral qualities, and what remarkable vicissitudes attended his personal and political career I We have always, by some unaccountable tendency of our nature, been struggling to hide from ourselves, or to explain away, the moral phenomena of Bacon's life;—but, in spite of ourselves, we have been compelled to sit in judgment and to condemn; and have been driven to the melancholy conclusion, that great mental power, even when associated with the most ardent and diligent application, has no necessary connexion with a right state of the heart, and a due regulation of the moral faculties. We fear it is impossible, with truth as our guide, to rescue the character of Bacon from the worst suspicions. With all his magnificence of intellect, with all his power of inductive discovery, with all his just views of much that pertained to religion, with all the noble principles which he announced and inculcated upon others, he was, nevertheless, the victim of infirmities, which, but for his great parts, would have covered him with everlasting scorn and contempt. It is impossible to deny his craving ambition, his over selfesteem, the sycophancy to which he resorted in urging his claims, his flattery of mean and vicious persons, his cold-hearted forgetfulness of his best friends, his prodigal expenditure, his reception of bribes in the highest office of justice, his slender moral remorse for the commission of crimes which he ingenuously confessed. Never were littleness and greatness so strangely blended as in the character of Bacon. We have been unable to repress our tears as we have contemplated the lights and shadows which fell upon his chequered path.
Mr. Sortain has done ample justice to this great philosopher and statesman, without committing the interests of religion or morality. In not a few cases in which Bacon has been unrighteously assailed, he has nobly and successfully defended him; and where he has felt himself unable to commend, he has, with a beautiful charity, looked at all the extenuating circumstances. The volume he has produced is a fine sketch of the history of the times of Elizabeth and James, as well as a searching record of the life of Bacon; and, if we are constrained to ignore the religious and moral consistency of his great hero, we are placed by him in a position to form accurate conceptions of his master-mind, and of the boon conferred by him on the science of his own and every coming age.
We think the Tract Society has well judged in publishing this truly enlightened volume, which cannot fail to be popular, and to enhance the literary reputation of the accomplished author. It is one of the most vivid pieces of biography that has seen the light in modern times.
The PALACEs of NINEVEH AND PERSEpoLis REstor ED: An Essay on Ancient Assyrian and Persian Architecture. By JAMEs FERGUsson, Esq., Author of “The True Principles of Beauty in Art,” “Illustrations of Indian Architecture,” ge. }c. 8vo. pp. 384. John Murray. It is very gratifying to find that the recent exploration of Assyrian ruins of cities and palaces, while it reflects the highest credit on the talent and industry of such men as Botta and Layard, has called forth the zeal and learning of a body of men, of whom Rawlinson and Fergusson are the types, who bid fair, at no distant day, to lay open to the view of mankind the meaning of Assyrian inscriptions, and the architectural forms of beauty which distinguished the monuments of our world's early history. Colonel Rawlinson has already done much towards deciphering the inscriptions which have been found in the great Assyrian ruins; and Mr. Fergusson, partly by his architectural skill, and partly by a close attention to the question of chrono
logy, as it aids in tracing the progress and changes of ancient Assyrian architecture, has made great advances towards supplying accurate data by which to judge of the actual configuration of the palaces and temples of antiquity as they originally stood. “There is nothing,” observes Mr. Fergusson, “more essential in an inquiry like the present, than to obtain as clear ideas as may be possible of the chronology of the objects about to be discussed, not only relatively to one another, but also, if possible, to ascertain the exact period that elapsed between the age of one and that 'of another. Without this, all reasoning is vague and unsatisfactory in the extreme; and it is impossible either to understand what one sces, or to derive from it that instruction which a knowledge of its position in a series most inevitably conveys. “By far the most important results obtained in Egypt, by the translation of the hieroglyphics, has been precisely this, that it has enabled us to classify the monuments, to see how one building and one style grew out of another, and in what mode the national mind expressed itself at the various epochs with which we are now familiar. This being accomplished, Egypt takes her place at once in the world's history; and any one who knows her chronology can read her history more easily, by a simple inspection of the ruins still standing in that valley of wonders, than if it were written in printed volumes; and her monuments now recal the past far more vividly and distinctly than ever yet was done by mere words. “And so it will be with Assyria, when we know the exact date of the various palaces that have lately been disinterred, and can assign to each its place in history, and know the dynasty and race to which it belonged. Not only shall we understand the arts of which it is the exponent, but the dynasties and races will become entities and living things; not mere lists of unmeaning names, as they have hitherto been, but voices of men, who lived, and acted, and who expressed their feelings and their aspirations in those forms we now gaze upon and are trying to understand—standing face to face, as it were with the Assyrian, who lived four thousand years ago, and who saw these figures grow beneath the chisel of the sculptor, and read these inscriptions as we do now. What he saw and felt we now see and may feel, if we will give ourselves the trouble to study and to understand.” This extract will give our readers some idea of what Mr. Fergusson seeks to accomplish. He despairs not of doing that for Assyria which has already been done for Egypt. But we cannot follow him in his lengthened inductions. They are, however, those of a mind of the first rank, and will be read by persons of intellectual taste and habit with the greatest possible interest. With the aid of Rawlinson, Layard, and Fergusson, there is every probability of our attaining to something like accurate conceptions of the chronological epochs of Ancient Assyria. He follows Herodotus, and not Ctesias. In this he differs from Rawlinson, but agrees with Layard.
To those who take interest in the recent discoveries in Nineveh this volume will be a most acceptable boon.
THE Works of LEONARD Woods, D.D., lately Professor of Christian Theology in the Theological Seminary, Andover, United States. Wols. 3, 4, and 5. It is with great satisfaction we can announce the completion of these valuable volumes, and their appearance in this country. Last year we introduced to the public the two former volumes, and recommended them strongly to our readers, and especially to students and to young ministers. The contents of the three remaining volumes fully sustain the high estimation we before expressed. The third volume completes the Lectures on Theology, which consist of one hundred and twenty-eight Lectures. The third volume commences with Lectures on Regeneration. The first of these replies, to the inquiry:— “Does the Holy Spirit, in Regeneration, act directly on the Sinner's mind to Dr. Woods ably maintains, “that as the effect produced in regeneration is in the mind itself, so must the influence be which produces it.” “The disorder to be remedied lies in the heart; and where but to the heart is the remedy to be applied ? There is nothing faulty anywhere, except in the mind itself: and the change to be effected must be effected there. Man's disposition—the state of his affections—is opposed to spiritual things. Isis heart is depraved. The Divine Spirit must act upon the heart itself. Do you say, IIe acts upon the truths of religion, so as to render them effectual; that He imparts power to motives, so that they excite and persuade the sinner to repent and believe? Let us examine this notion. Take the truth, that God so loved the world as to give his Son to die for us. The text is before the eyes of the believer and the unbeliever. They both read it, and read it alike. 13ut the effect is different, and that effect is in the mind. The precise difference is this:—the believer discerns the excellence of the truth, and loves it, but the unbeliever does not. The power of Divine truth over the believer is precisely this:–he fels powerfully towards it—or has a strong affection for it—lores it intensely. And the Spirit of God gives power to the truth, by causing the mind to discern it clearly, to
believe it firmly, and to exercise powerful affections in view of it. He makes the truth efficacious, by bringing the heart effectually to love and obey it.” The fourth volume consists of “Letters to Unitarians;” and other Letters occasioned by these, or connected with them. The fifth volume contains Letters to Young Ministers; Essays on the Philosophy of the Mind; and Remarks on Cause and Effect, in connexion with Fatalism and Free Agency. These are followed by a considerable number of Sermons, delivered on a variety of interesting and public occasions. Many of them are Funeral Sermons for distinguished men, or eminent ministers, and will be lasting Inerno
rials of the discriminating power of the au
thor's mind, and of the kindly and benignant affections of his heart; as well as of his intense love to the truth and to the cause of Christ. Several of the discourses, of peculiar power and value, were delivered at ordinations; and not a few at the Chapel of the Theological Seminary. May it please God long to spare the author of these valuable works, in comfortable health, in happiness, and in usefulness, although in comparative retirement from his arduous and successful labours; and may the spirit of his theological lectures pervade all our colleges for the education of the rising ministry! THE RELIGION OF GEOLOGY AND its CoxNECTED Sciences. By Edward Hitchcock, D.D., LL.D., President of Amherst College, and Professor of Natural Theology and Geology. 8vo. pp. 484. David Bogue, Fleet-street. Dr. Hitchcock's standing, as a writer upon scientific and religious subjects, is well known and highly appreciated. Geology has been one of his favourite studies, for many years, and long before it became popular in circles strictly reverential to the data of Revelation. His earliest tractates on the subject were conceived and written in the true spirit of a Christian philosopher; though then there were not a few enlightened men, in America and in Great Britain, who were alarmed at the conclusions, or rather tendencies, of the geological theories advocated by him and others who thought with him. Many of the fears which then agitated the minds of intelligent and good men have gradually subsided; and our increased acquaintance with the actual state of the globe we inhabit has led to the general conclusion, in intelligent circles, that the account given by Moses in the Book of Genesis is perfectly compatible with the remote antiquity of the globe, which the actual discoveries of geology seem to demand. In fact, the danger to Revelation would seem to be more formidable in adhering to ancient theories, than in admitting