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finger of God.”e But Pharaoh still hardened his heart.

After the lice, came other vermin upon the land, and the vermin were followed by a murrain among the beasts; camels, oxen, sheep, asses, and horses died in multitudes. But the king's heart still remained hardened.

Moses then filled his hands with ashes, and scattered them in the air in the presence of the king; and boils broke out upon man and beast. Upon each occasion Moses declared the hour when the plague should begin, and when it should end; but every time Pharaoh hardened his heart.

After this, Moses stretched forth his rod towards heaven, and the Lord sent a fearful storm, with thunder and hail, such as had never been seen in the land of Egypt since it became a nation. The trees were broken down, and men and cattle were killed in the fields by the hail. Then Pharaoh sent in haste for Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “ I have sinned this time. Entreat the Lord that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail.”? And Moses went out of the city, and spread abroad his hands unto the Lord : and the thunders and the bail ceased. But Pharaoh hardened his heart again, as before.

Then locusts were brought by an east wind, which covered the land, and ate all that the hail had left: Pharaoh entreated Moses and Aaron, “ Forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once.” Then the Lord sent a strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red Sea. But Pharaoh remained hardened.

e Exod. viii. 19.

f Exod. ix. 27, 28.


Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days, so that no man could see another, and no one rose from the place where he

But in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites dwelt, it was light.

Still Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he said to Moses, “Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more: for in that day thou

face thou shalt die.”g

seest my


22. PHARAOH's presumption had now reached its height. Then said the Lord to Moses, “ Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: yea, he shall drive you out; for I will send a destroying angel through Egypt, who shall slay their firstborn." The Israelites received a command to make all preparations for their journey, and to strengthen themselves by a feast, for which they were directed to roast a lamb one year old. " And thus shall you eat it," said the Lord: “with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your


shall eat it in haste: it is the Lord's passover.

And the blood shall be to you for a token

upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you.

When the appointed hour came, the Israelites were all prepared for their departure. At the hour


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9 Exod. x. 28.

a Exod. xii. 3—13.

of midnight the destroying angel went forth and slew all the firstborn of the Egyptians, from the son of Pharaoh to the son of the poorest servant, and all the firstborn of beasts also. Then was there mourning and lamentation among the Egyptians, and Pharaoh and all his servants were filled with terror. And the Egyptians sent the people out with great haste; for they said, “We be all dead men.

So the Israelites went out of the land of their bondage, and took with them much silver, and gold, and precious vessels, and clothes, which they had received from the Egyptians. The dough for their bread they took with them unleavened, for they had not time to bake it.

No sooner did Pharaoh hear that the Israelites had departed, and were gone a day's journey into the wilderness, than he repented of having let them go. He quickly called out his army, and pursued after them, and overtook them in a narrow mountain pass on the borders of the Red Sea. With fear and trembling the Israelites saw the hosts of the Egyptians approaching them. But Moses appeased them: “Fear not,” said he; "the Lord shall fight for


and ye shall hold your peace.” Their situation was, however, the most fearful that can be conceived: before them the deep sea; on each side of them steep, impassable mountains; and behind them the Egyptian army. And the Lord said unto Moses, “Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward.” Whither? down into the sea ? Yes; “now the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.”

Then the Lord caused a strong wind to blow all

that night, which drove back the waters, and dried up the foundation of the sea. And between the two hosts he placed a pillar of cloud, which was bright towards the Israelites, and gave light to their camp, while it hid them from the Egyptians. So


they went in the night into the midst of the sea, and the waters were a wall to them on the right hand and on the left.

But Pharaoh pursued after them; and when the morning dawned, the Egyptians were in the middle of the sea, but the Israelites had got quite over. And the Lord terrified the Egyptians by fire out of the cloud, so that they cried out with fear, “ Let us fee from the face of Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them against the Egyptians." Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out thine hand over the sea ;” and the waters returned upon the Egyptians. The Egyptians fled from the waters, but they were covered by the waves, so that not one of them escaped. b

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way from Egypt to the land of Canaan lay through a desert. There was no cornfield, no fertilizing stream, as in Egypt; for whole days journeys there was nothing but sand—no wellsnot a blade of grass—not a single footstep-not a human habitation. Three days' journey from the Red Sea, the Israelites came to a pool; but the water was bitter, so that they could not drink it. Then the people murmured against Moses. And Moses cried unto the Lord; and the Lord showed him a tree, which he cast into the water, and it became sweet.

b Exod. xiv. 10_28.

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