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sprang at the mention of his name, as if he had sat on the point
of a stray nail ; he and his companion Dr H-, both senior VERILY, Donnybrook fair is, to all intents and purposes, “ dead fellows of Trinity College, having disguised themselves, as and gone;" for the modern wretched assemblage of hungry- they thought effectually,
for the purpose of seeing, for the first looking cattle, dogs’-meat horses, measly swine, and forlorn- time in their lives, the fair, and the fun of it, without being looking human creatures, obliged to content themselves with recognised in such an uncanonical assemblage. With this obstaring at the exterior of the show-booths, for want of the ject they had avoided exposing themselves to the risk of walkmeans to visit the interior, no more resembles the Donnybrook ing down the tent, but had merely slipped in to reconnoitre of the past, than a troop of the old “bulkies,” armed with their from behind the shelter of the frieze-coated customer, who Arcadian crooks, and helmeted with their old woollen night now, so inopportunely and innocently, had announced the caps, resembled a squadron of lancers.
name of one of them. Alas! alas ! how every thing is altered! No longer does
“ Hold your tongue, sir!" said Dr M. ; "you mistake me, the quiet citizen dread the approach of Trinity Sunday; no sir." longer does he think it necessary to barricade his windows, “ Arrah, docthor darlint, sure iv I mistake ye, ye need'nt get and postpone exterior painting for a week or two, in order to into sich a comflusthration about id; bud sure I know ye too save his glass and the decorator's labour from the nocturnal well to mistake ye. Sure, aint I the boy that had the misforthin industry of the gentle College students.
to dhrop yer honor's riverince into the bog-hole, whin ye wint The students never mustered in much force at Donnybrook, out to make believe ye were snipe shootin', down at Colonel because it unluckily came during the long vacation ; but there Thrench's, last Candlemas was a twelmonth.” were enough at any time to kick up a shindy or scrimmage “ I don't know you, sir!" roared the doctor in an agony, (by modern innovators called a row”), for, between those hoping by his ferocity to overawe the countryman into silence; who resided in town, and such as for various reasons kept the but Paddy had taken too much punch to notice the tone, and vacation within the College walls, a pretty decent muster seemed incapable of entertaining or following up more than could, upon an emergency, be called together.
one idea at a time, and the one now before him was that of It was upon the 26th of August–isn't it strange that I forcing himself, will he nill he, upon the recollection of the should recollect the day of the month, though I forget the worthy doctor. year !—that Bob O'Gorman, Dan Sweeny, Dick Hall, and a “Ye don't know me!-well, listen to that !-ye don't know few other under-graduates of T.C.D., resolved to go to the me!-oh, well, iv that does'nt fog! Arrah, thin, maybe ye fair and have a spree.
don't recollect the bog-bole that ye wanted me to carry ye Dick was a little, delicate, effeminate-looking “ould crab," over, an' ye war so mortial heavy that my fut slipped, an' I and so smock-faced that he would easily pass for a girl, and had the luck to fall an my face, jist at the very edge iv the a rather good-looking one, if dressed in female attire. slush, an' ye pitched right over, head foremost, into the very
But Dick's effeminacy was confined to his looks, for his middle iv id; an' iv id was’nt for the good luck that yer log's muscular power far exceeded that of any man an inch or two stuck out, jist the laste taste in life, by which I got a hould more in stature, or a stone more in weight. He was a per- ye, sure would'nt ye be lost intirely? An' don't ye"fect master of the small-sword, had no match at single-stick ; “ Hold your tongue, you infernal scoundrel !" roared the and woe to the unhappy wretch who fell under the discipline enraged doctor, who saw that every eye was fixed upon him, of his little bony fists, for he was an accomplished amateur in and every one's attention drawn to the spot, from the eagerthe science of pugilism, then but little known and less prac- ness of manner and stentorian voice of Paddy, whose remitised than subsequently by gentlemen.
niscence had produced a roar of laughter. Escape, too, was On the present occasion it was resolved that Dick should utterly hopeless, for the tent had been filling, and the door.' sustain the character of a girl, and much fun was antici- way was blocked up by those who were pressing forward from pated from the punishment that the remainder of the party the outside to get a view of the speaker. “Hold your tongue, would inflict upon any presumptuous individual who should sirrah; you mistake me for some one else. I never was thrown dare to molest the modest fair one.
into a bog-hole in my life.” At the end of the double ra of tents called “ Dame
"Oh! pillelieu ! meellia murther! listen to that—as iv any street," was one called “the Larkers ;” and as this was uni- one that iver seen Docthor M-ov Thrinity College could formly crowded by citizens of Dublin, it was scarcely possible iver mistake him agin; bud sure Docthor H- there'ill may for any one, residing but for a month in town, not to be recog- be help out yer mimory [Dr H- gave a writhe, for he had nised by some person present, who immediately passed the hoped to have escaped, at least]; sure he was at the colonel's name of the new-comer round, and he was surprised (if a raw whin ye war brought home in the muck.” one) to hear himself addressed by name, by persons whom he This announcement of the names and address of both the never saw in his life before.
unfortunate betrayed, was received with a shout, whilst It was at the entrance of this tent that a countryman Paddy's earnestness to free himself from the charge of having stood, attired in the usual large frieze over-coat (which, from blundered, increased every moment, and reminiscence followed its being worn in summer as well as winter, might lead a reminiscence, each in a louder tone than the preceding, until stranger to suppose that there seldom or never is a hot day his argument became a perfect shout, whilst the unlucky in Ireland), and accompanied by a pretty, bashful-looking S.F.T.C.D.'s strove to out-bellow him with their denials, and girl, apparently fresh from the “interior.” After gaping for the audience laughed, shouted, and danced with glee at the å considerable time, some gentlemen, amused by the wonder- fun. ment that he exhibited, and probably somewhat touched by I protest," bawled Dr H," that I do not know Colonel his companion's charms, called to him to “come in.” With Trench. You mistake, my honest man ; I never was at his some reluctance he accepted the invitation, and, fearful of in- place in my life. My friend here, Dr M«, knows him, and trading upon the “gintlemin," seated himself awkwardly has been there often; but I have not, I assure you." upon the end of a form; up it tilted, and down he went, to “ Oh! you ass," bellowed Dr M," what do you acknowthe great delight of the beholders. Having gathered himself ledge my name for? 'Tis no wonder they call you 'Leatherup, he reseated himself more firmly, placing “Biddy", near head > him, she having declined all offers of other accommodation A renewed roar followed this piece of blundering recriminapressed on her by the company.
tion. Paddy O'Neill (the name by which he announced himself), “ Never at Colonel Thrench's !--not you !-oh!
desavin' having been pretty well plied with punch, had grown very ould villain !" screamed the hitherto silent Biddy. voluble, and seemed to be beginning to feel himself quite at --Do ye know me !—do ye!-do ye ! !—D0-0-0-0-0 yel!!" home, had told many queer stories, and made his entertainers every repetition of “do ye” being louder and longer than laugh very heartily, when two elderly gentlemen, closely the last, until she finished in a terrific long shriek, squeezing muffled, entered rather stealthily, and sliding over, suddenly her hands together upon her knees, and stamping alternately seated themselves behind Paddy. Biddy, who had been with her feet, with a rapidity that gave the effect of a shake hitherto quite silent, answering every compliment or remark to her voice. addressed to her only with a smile, gave Paddy, a nudge, " I do protest and declare," shouted the worthy doctor, and whispered something into his ear, that caused him to turn " that I never, to my knowledge, saw your face before.” and gaze at the new arrivals.
“ Arrah, Biddy, avourneen, is this the ould Turk that ye « Arrah, thin, Docthor M- agrah, who'd ha' thought tould me about, bud would'nt mintion his name, that was so o' meetin' you here?” said he, addressing one of them, who I imperant to yo? Scraub his face, the ould thief! and let me
« Not you!
see iv he dar purvint ye, my darlin'. Tache him to behave or three hundred of his brethren were assembled, having himself to unpurtected faymales !”
whipped his Rosinante into a gallop, he drove against à Biddy, who seemed quite inclined to forestall her com- brewer's dray, by which his traces were smashed, his horse panion's orders, had sprung upon the unlucky doctor before set free, the jingle locked fast, and he, springing off his perch, the sentence was half finished. He strove in vain to shake shouted out, “ down with the bloody poliss !" her off; she clung to him like a wild-cat, screaming, shriek. In an instant the mob rushed upon them. Paddy and Biddy, ing, scolding, biting, scratching, and tearing, until at length with an alacrity and agility truly astonishing, sprang from she maddened him past all endurance by pulling two handfuls the lofty vehicle, plunged into the crowd (where there were of hair successively out of the little that remained on his skull, plenty of willing hands to free them from the handcuffs), and for which he repaid her with two furious blows.
escaped. Nor were the worthy doctors slow in following The spectators, who had hitherto looked on, and merely their example, the only prisoner that remained being the be laughed at the entire affair as an excellent joke, had under- wildered Englishman, who suffered "only" a three months' gone a change of sentiment upon hearing the inuendo con- incarceration in his majesty's jail of Newgate for going to tained in Paddy's last speech; and, no longer considering the see Donnybrook, and the fun at it, his sentence having been old gentlemen as a pair of innocents amusingly “blown," they mercifully mitigated, in consideration of its being his first now looked upon them as a pair of wicked old profligates, offence ! worse than young ones ; and one, more zealous than the rest, “ Well,” said Dr H-, when he went with his head banshouting out “ shame! to strike the girl," stretched Dr H- daged up, a shade over his right eye, and about twenty bits with a blow.
of sticking plaster stuck over his face, to visit Dr M_ (who Dr M., irascible at all times, now lost all self-possession, and, was unable to leave his bed for a week), "well, what a fool unable to reach his friend's new assailant, turned furiously I was to be persuaded by you to go to Donnybrook fair ! upon the cause of all his woe, and bestowed a shower of blows what a pretty exhibition we would have made at the police with his stick upon Paddy, before the latter had time to bring office this morning! Was it not most fortunate that we made his cudgel to parry them. He soon recovered himself, however, our escape ?" and from defendant quickly became assailant.
“ I have been thinking,” said (or rather groaned) Dr M Many of the bystanders indignantly called out, “Murder the " who that scoundrelly country fellow could be. I never fell ould villain--knock out his brains, Paddy. That's right, into a bog in my life-that was all a lie; and still the black Biddy; fitther him!” and several proceeded to give a helping guard's face was familiar to me.” hand to the good work; but others thought it was a shame for “ I think he was very like that scapegrace Robert O'Gora whole lot of people to fall upon two, and in their love for jus- man, only that he had light hair; and though I could take my tice they ranged themselves alongside the reverend doctors, oath I know nothing of that infamous little wretch that they shouting,"fair play's a jewel!” The fight thickened, volun- called Biddy, yet I do think I have seen her face before teers joining either rank every moment, in the laudable en hum"deavour to keep up the balance of power. Biddy had quitted “ Could it have been that he disguised himself, eh! I'l her grip of the doctor, and was now, to the surprise of those inquire into it, and if he did, by". who had time to look about them (and they were few), en- " I think," my dear M, "you had better let it alone ; the gaged in the endeavour to wrench a stick out of the hands of less we say about it the better. You know we really led a huge hulk of an Englishman, who, having merely gone to see the fight--that's a fact that can't be denied ; though it sur. the fun at Donnybrook, without the most remote idea of join- prises me how we were hooked into it.” ing in a fight, could not be persuaded of the necessity of A rustle at the door, followed by a loud knock, announced giving his stick, as he did not intend to use it himself, to one that the newspaper had been thrust into the letter-box, from who did, and that one " a female!" At first he laughed; but which Dr H- immediately extracted it; and as he glanced he was quickly obliged to put forth all his strength to retain over the page, the following paragraph met his eye. It was it, and, whilst twisting about, he caught a stray blow that headed “**
Disgraceful and fatal riot at Donnybrook :" floored him; he fell against a table, which of course over- “ It is with mingled feelings of indignation, horror, and conset; the confusion increased, when a shout suddenly arose, tempt, that we feel bound, in discharge of our imperative, “Hurrah for Dr M-! Hurrah for Dr H-I College to the onerous, and painful duty to the public, to give publicity to rescue ! Trinity !-Trinity!"
one of the most astounding, frightful, and overwhelming facts At the well-known war-cry of the students, several changed which it has ever fallen to our lot, as faithful journalists, to sides; those who had just been defending the doctors now record. The peaceable, gentle, and innoxious inhabitants of turned upon them, whilst many of their late assailants ranged the village of Donnybrook, and the casual visitors who sought themselves on their side. The citizens, thinking that the a little innocent recreation at the fair now being holden, were number of students must be small, rushed to the spot, to pay yesterday evening thrown into a state of the utmost alarm, off sundry old scores ; but one would imagine that the cry of confusion, and dismay, by a barefaced attempt to carry off by “Trinity! Trinity!" which resounded on all sides, was a brutal force a young girl from the guardianship and protecsort of spell, or incantation, that raised spirits from the earth, tion of her brother It appears that they had gone into a tent so many voices responded to the call.
to rest and refresh themselves (having probably over-exerted The unfortunate doctors, who had just expected nothing their light fantastic toes), when their savage assailants (reshort of utter annihilation, felt their spirits rise at the pro- specting whose rank and station various rumours are afloat, spect of aid and rescue, and bellowed with might and main, which for the present we forbear from mentioning) rushed “Trinity! Trinity!” and in a few minutes they were the upon them, and endeavoured to force her away. The indig. nucleus of a fight in which the whole fair had joined. nant bystanders interfered to prevent the outrage, when
“The poliss !--the poliss !_here come the bloody po. will it, can it be believed ? our pen trembles, and a cold liss !" was now the cry; and the horse police dashed into the thrill runs through us as we write it!--the worse than Indian mob with their customary ardour, their spurs fastened in war-whoop, the yell of the collegians, was raised, and their their horses' flanks causing them to plunge, and bite, and numbers would in all human probability have succeeded, but kick most furiously, and laying about them with their swords, for the timely interference of the police, to whose humanity, cutting at every thing and every one within their reach ; promptitude, and forbearance, upon the trying occasion, too luckily they did not know the sword exercise, and, therefore, much praise cannot be given. The riot was not quelled until when they struck with the edge, it was only by accident. In a the military were called out, and by three o'clock this morning jiffy, the reverend seniors, caught in the very act
of shouting all was again quiet. Up to the time of going to press we had " Trinity !” were handcuffed, as were also the Englishman, only heard of sixteen lives being lost. who got a blow of a sabre from a policeman that nearly took Second Edition.--We stop the press to announce that no off his ear, for attempting to expostulate ; Paddy, who sub- lives have been lost ; but Sir Patrick Dunn's, the Meath, and mitted quietly ; and Biddy, after a severe tussle, in which Mercer's hospitals, are crowded with wounded. N.B. "The she reefed one policeman's face, and nearly bit the thumb off soldiers were not called out. another. They were all put together into a jingle, and con- Third Edition.--Dr Fitzgerald has just informed us that ducted by a mounted escort to town; the police hurrying there are no wounded in either Sir Patrick's, the Meath, or them for fear of a rescue, by keeping continually whaling the Mercer's. driver with the flats of their swords, and prodding the horse “ Well,” said Dr H-, “if they are not there, we at least with the points, which so enraged the jarvy, that when he got know where some of them are." near the corner of Leeson-street, Stephen's-green, where two
WHAT IS THE USE OF WATER ?
look upon the ocean as being the source of the watery vapour
of the air upon the large scale. Why is it that of the whole surface of this globe, we may Now, watery vapour is lighter than air, and hence the vapour, consider that three-fourths are covered by water, and that only as soon as formed, ascends in the air like a balloon, until it one-fourth is in a condition to be permanently inhabited by arrives at a part of the air which is of its own specific
gravity. human beings ? Is there any great object in nature served The air in these higher regions is extremely cold, and the vaby this? Is there any law of nature which would prevent the pour can no longer maintain itself under the form of invisible proportion being one-fourth water to three-fourths land, or steam: it is condensed, and would immediately fall back to even less water? In fact, what after all is the great use of its source as rain or hail, but for a singular property which water upon the large scale in nature ?
it acquires at the moment of being vaporized. When water First of all, although three-fourths of the globe are now evaporates, it becomes highly electrified, and could attract a covered with water, there is no reason to suppose that it has feather, or other light bodies, like a stick of sealing-wax been always so. On the contrary, it is quite certain that the which has been rubbed briskly on a woollen cloth. Now, the proportion between land and water has changed very much vapour which passes off is electrified also ; and while in this and very frequently, that the whole continent of Europe was state of electricity, it, on arriving at the colder regions of the at one time the bed of an immense sea, when probably there air, cannot condense, to form liquid water. The minute par. was a great continent where the Pacific Ocean is now spread; ticles of the water repel each other too violently, in virtue of that even Old Ireland was once not merely what Admiral their electricities, to form drops, but they constitute the great Yorke wished her to be, forty-eight hours under water, but loose collections of clouds which diversify so much the approbably many thousand years in that condition; and that the pearance of our sky. The clouds being thus highly electrical
, great tract of limestone which occupies all the centre of the and being very light, are attracted by the tops of mountains country, is nothing more than a collection of the skeletons of and highlands, or by elevated buildings; and, giving off their shell-fish, her first inhabitants, which by time and pressure electricity, the particles of water coalesce, to form drops which have been converted into the hard material of which we build descend as rain. In this country the air is so damp that in geour houses, and which we burn into lime. There is thus no neral the discharge of the electricity of the clouds takes place particular reason why there should be three times as much quietly and silently; but in summer, and in dry climates, it water at present as land, but it is easy to show that water produces the vivid flashings and injurious effects of the lighton the great, as well as on the small scale, is of paramount ning, and the re-echoed rattle of the thunder-clap. importance in nature.
When water is cooled, it diminishes in bulk like other bodies ; Water is a portion of the food of all living beings. In the but at a particular temperature it deviates from the general case of animals, the bodies from whence they derive nutriment law of contraction, and by doing so, becomes, perhaps, the are so varied and so complex, that to illustrate the peculiar part most striking example of providential design that is to be met which water plays in each, would occupy too much space. In with in inorganic nature. Cold water is specifically heavier all our drinks, even in ardent spirits, there is a very large than warm water, in consequence of the contraction it has quantity of water, and our solid food very seldom contains less undergone, and hence will sink in it, as water would sink in than nine-tenths of its weight of water. The living body is oil. Now, if we consider the surface of a lake exposed to the even less solid. A man weighing 150 lbs. would, if perfectly cooling action of a wintry wind, the water which is first dried, weigh not more than 10 lbs., the other 140 lbs. being cooled becomes heavier, and, sinking to the bottom, is replaced water. It is to the existence of this quantity of water that by the warmer water, which floats up to the top; there is thus we owe the elasticity, the softness, and pliability of the differ- a current established of cold water descending and of warmer ent portions of our frame, the animal tissues being, when dry, water rising up. This continues until all the water in the lake hard and brittle as dry glue.
has been cooled down to the temperature at which its specific The nutrition of vegetables furnishes a beautiful and simple gravity is greatest, which is about 40 degrees, or about eight example of the use of water in nature. The body of the ve- degrees above the point at which it begins to freeze. The getable, the proper wood, may be considered as being com- action of the cold wind continuing, the water at the surface is posed of water and of charcoal; and hence, when we heat a still further cooled; but now, in place of contracting, it expands piece of wood until we decompose it, the water is expelled, -instead of becoming heavier, it becomes lighter, and remains and carbon or charcoal remains behind. In order to grow, a floating upon the surface. It is then still further cooled, and plant must therefore get water and charcoal in a form fit for finally its temperature being reduced to 32 degrees, it freezes, its use, that is, in such a form as it can make food of, and di- and a layer of ice is formed on the surface of the lake. This gest them. For this, the carbon is supplied in the carbonic ice, and the cold water next it, are impermeable to heat : it acid which the air contains, and the water in the state of actually serves as a blanket to the water at 40 degrees which vapour which the air contains also, and which is continually is below, preventing the escape of the heat, and retaining it at descending under the form of dew and rain to moisten the that temperature, sufficient for the purposes to which it is subleaves and the roots of the plants, when it has been absorbed servient, for at the temperature of 40 degrees, the life and into the ground. All the water which is absorbed by plants is enjoyments of all the various tribes of animals and vegetables pot assimilated, or digested; a great part is again thrown out which reside permanently under the surface of the water are by the surface of the leaves; for, precisely as the air which an perfectly secured, at least for a very considerable time; the animal expires from the lungs in breathing is loaded with va- water holding dissolved a quantity of oxygen for the animal pour, so is there a process of perspiration from the surface of respiration, and the vegetables living on the carbonic acid the leaves, which are the lungs of plants. For the forma- which is formed by the respiration of the fish. On the aption of substances which are peculiar to certain plants, other proach of spring, the warmer air, and the rays of the more substances are required as food: thus, most plants require elevated sun, act directly on the surface of the ice, and each nitrogen, which is accordingly furnished abundantly in at- portion of water formed by melting, becoming heavier, sinks, mospheric air; others must have access to sulphur, in order to so as to expose the ice itself to the source of heat. Thus the flourish; but this depends, as it were
, upon particular branches ice is rapidly dissolved, and after a few days the lake throws off of manufacture in which the plant is engaged; for its own its wintry aspect altogether. support, for making wood, and the tissue of its leaves and ves- Now, it'water did not possess this peculiarity of being heaviest sels, it uses only water and carbonic acid.
at the particular temperature of 40 degreez-if it contracted The conversion of water into steam or invisible vapour by according as it was cooled, up to the moment of freezing, as boiling, is one of the best known facts in science; but by a little almost all other liquids do, what would be the result? The attention we can observe that this change takes place at cold wind acting on the surface of the lake, and the water bealmost all temperatures, although much less rapidly. Thus, coming heavier by being cooled, the circulation would continue if a little water be laid in a plate, it is soon dried up, and wet until all the water had been cooled to the point at which it clothes, by being hung up in the air, are very soon completely freezes. The ice would then form indifferently in all portions dried. Even below the temperature at which water freezes, it of it, at the bottom and in the centre, as well as on the surstill evaporates ; and thus, when a fall of snow is succeeded by face; and by the continued action of the source of cold, the a continued frost, the snow gradually disappears from the fields wind, the whole mass of water in the lake would be frozen into without having melted, evaporating while yet solid. From a solid block of ice. The watery sap in the vessels of the the surface of all the water of the globe, therefore, there is aquatic plants, the blood in fishes and other animals inhabitcontinually ascending a stream of watery vapour; but as the ing the water, would be equally frozen, and all these living proportion of sea is so much greater than that of land, we may beings consequently killed. Further, on the approach of suc
mer, by the first heating action of the air and sun, a layer of considerably warmer than that which bathes our shores. This ice, of a few inches thick upon the surface, would be melted, current becoming sensible first in the Gulf of Mexico, is called but the water thus produced would, by being impenetrable to the Gulf Stream; it passes obliquely across the Atlantic, floatheat, prevent the great body of ice below from being affected. ing on the colder water of the ocean, which tends in a direcJust as, in reality, the cold water at the surface prevents the tion nearly opposite to replace it, and thus diffuses over the warmer water below from being cooled, so then it would pre- coasts of North America and Europe the heat which it had vent the colder ice below from being warmed ; and hence the absorbed within the torrid zone. The northerly winds, which heats of summer passing over without the melting process would bring down a sudden winter on us, are therefore temextending beyond a few feet in depth, the first cold days of pered by passing over the warmer surface of the ocean ; whilst the next winter would solidify all again.
the hot winds from the south, which on the approach of spring In every country, therefore, where at present water is frozen might make too premature a change, expend, in passing over at all in winter, we should have there established the reign of the great expanse of sea, a portion of their heat; and thus the perpetual frost. By the presence of such large masses of ice, transition in both directions is rendered more gradual and the temperature of the ground would be so much reduced, harmless. that, in place of the rich herbage of our meadows, and the These are but a few of the important duties which are alluxuriant produce of our corn-fields, we should have our coun- lotted to water in its place in nature. It in other respects try yielding a scanty support to wandering herds of deer, in presents an equally interesting subject of examination, and it the mosses and lichens that could be scraped up from beneath is one to which we shall return. From its value as the great the snow.
The oaks, the beeches, the horse-chesnuts, which agent of nutrition to the vegetable world, and the necessity of give such beauty to our sylvan scenery, would disappear, and a supply of it to animals ; from its power in modifying the apthe monotony of wildernesses of the Scotch fir and of the pearance and structure of a country, changing land into sea, spruce would be varied only by patches of stunted birch. The and elevating banks where deep water had been before, the countries nearer the tropics would be gradually brought into philosophers of old looked upon water as the origin of all the same condition, by the depression of their mean tempera- earthly things, as being above all others the element of nature. ture; and thus, in a short time after water had ceased to possess It is not so: water is not an element. Among other wonthis peculiar property, the whole surface of the globe would be ders which chemistry has taught us, we have learned of what reduced to the condition of which we now happily only read in water is composed; and on another occasion we shall describe the tales of the arctic voyagers; and all commerce, manufac- the way in which its elements may be obtained.
K. tures, and civilization, would be banished from the earth. Of such value is this little peculiarity of water !
A property of water, which, however, unlike the former, it CELEBRATION OF THE FOURTH OF JULY in New YORK. shares with all other liquids, is, that when it freezes it gives „On this day, the anniversary of American independence, all out a large quantity of heat ; and that conversely, in order that creation appeared to be independent; some of the horses par. ice may melt, it must obtain, from some other source, a quan- ticularly so, for they would not troop“ in no line not nohow." tity equally considerable. Consequently, water freezes and Some preferred going sideways, like crabs; others went backice melts very slowly; and that it should melt thus slowly, is wards, some would not go at all, others went a great deal too of essential importance in animated nature. If in spring or fast, and not a few parted company with their riders, whom they summer, when vegetable life is in activity, when the develope- kicked off just to show their independence. And the women ment of leaves, of flowers, and fruit, is at its greatest energy, were in the same predicament: they might dance right or and all the vessels of the plant are distended with its nutritious dance left ; it was only out of the frying-pan into the fire, juices, were it suddenly exposed to cold, the sap would be for it was pop, pop; bang, bang; fiz, pop, bang; so that you frozen, and by the expansion of the ice the vegetable tissues literally trod upon gunpowder. The troops did not march in torn to pieces, and the plant killed. In the thin extremities, as very good order, because, independently of their not knowing in the leaves, such is the effect of the frost of a single night; how, there was a good deal of independence to contend with but as the fluids, yielding but gradually up their latent heat, At one time an omnibus and four would drive in and cut off solidify very slowly, the injury does not extend so far as to be the general and his staff from his division; at another, a cart beyond the remedial powers of the plant itself. In another would roll in and insist upon following close upon the band of way, however, the peculiar latent heat of water is of still more music; so that it was a mixed procession-generals, omniimportance. If there was no large collection of water on the bus and four, music, cart-loads of bricks, troops, omnibus and globe, the change of seasons would be amazingly more rapid pair, artillery, hackney-coach, &c. “Roast pig” is the faand more remarkable than they at present are. A change in vourite “independent” dish, and in New York on the above day the direction of the wind, the alteration which a few weeks are “six miles of roast pig,” viz, three miles of booths on each should effect in the position of the sun, would transfer us from side of Broadway, and roast pig in each booth! Rockets are the depth of the severest colds of winter to the summer heats. fired in the streets, some running horizontally up the pareThese colds and heats would also be much greater than they ment, and sticking into the back of a passenger ; and others at present are, and an approximation to this actually occurs mounting slanting-dicularly, and Paul-Prying into the bedin countries far distant from the sea. The central districts of room windows on the third floor or attics, just to see how Europe and of Asia have what are termed continental cli- things are going on there. On this day, too, all America gets mates to distinguish them from ours, which is called insular. tipsy.-Captain Marryatt's Diary in America. Their summers are hotter, their winters are much colder, and
IRISH DRAMATIC TALENT.-Difference of taste makes it the spring and autumn seasons of passage, which with us difficult, if not impossible, to say which is the best comedy might be said to occupy most of the year, are in those coun: in the English language. Many, however, are of opinion that tries of only a few weeks', or even a few days', duration. In
there are three which more particularly dispute the palmfact, when on the cessation of summer the first cold winds namely, “She Stoops to Conquer,” “ The School for Scandal," tend to bring on the winter, and to bind up our lakes in frost, and " The Heiress;" and it is remarkable that the authors the first portion of water frozen becomes, by giving up its of these three beautiful productions were all Irishmen_Goldlatent heat, a source of warmth which tempers the chilly air, smith, Sheridan, and Murphy. - Literary World. and retards its action on the remainder. The water freezes thus very slowly. The vegetables, and certain classes of ani- its least charm. It is the renewed vigour it implants in all
THE MORNING.–The sweetness of the morning is perhaps mals, feeling the cold of winter thus gradually coming on, pre around that affects us-man, animals,
birds, plants, vegetapare to meet it without injury. The motion of the sap in the one, that of the blood in the other class of living beings, be- tion, flowers. Refreshed and soothed with sleep, man opens
his heart; he is alive to Nature, and Nature's God, and his comes slower, and, dropping its leaves and fruit, the tree retains but its firm trunk, within which its energies are preserved | drink of the dew like the lowers, and feels the same reviving
mind is more intelligent, because more fresh. He seems to for the ensuing season ; whilst the hedgehog, the viper, the -frog, and other animals, retire to their hiding-places, and in a
effect.--Illustrations of Human Life. state of almost lifeless stupor remain until the warmth of the
Printed and Published every Saturday by Gunn and CAMERON, at the Ofice succeeding spring calls them to renewed existence.
of the General Advertiser, No. 6, Church Lane, College Green, Dublin.In the formation of the insular climate which we possess, Agents : - London : R. GROOMBRIDGB. Panyer Alley, Paternoster Ros. another power of water, however, equally or perhaps more Manchester : Simms and DINHAM, Exchange Street. Liverpool: J.
Davies, North John Street. Birmingham: J. DRAKR, Bristol : M. influential, can be traced. There issues continually from the
BINGHAM. Broad Street. Edinburgh: Fraser and CRAWFORD, Georg ocean at the equator, as the earth revolves, a current of water Street, Glasgow; David ROBERTSON, Trongate,
Tås ancient Bridge and Black Castle of Leighlin-Bridge, From a minute description of the remains of this castle seated on the goodly Barrow,” must be familiar to such given by Mr Ryan in his History and Antiquities of the County of our readers as have ever travelled on the mail-coach road of Carlow, a work of much ability and research, it appears between Carlow and Kilkenny, for it is a scene of much pic- that it was constructed on the Norman plan, and consisted turesque beauty, and of a character very likely to impress of a quadrangular enclosure, 315 feet in length and 234 feet itself on the memory.
in width, surrounded by a wall seven feet thick, with a fosse These are the most striking features of the town called on the exterior of three sides of the enclosure, and the river Leighlin-Bridge, a market and post town, situated partly in on the fourth. Of this wall the western side only is now in the parish of Augha and barony of Idrone-East, and partly existence. The keep or great tower of this fortress, reprein the parish of Wells and barony of Idrone-West, in the sented in our sketch, is situated at the north-western angle of county of Carlow, six miles south from the town of that name, the square, and is of an oblong form, and about fifty feet in and forty-five miles S.S. W. from Dublin. This town contains height. It is much dilapidated; but one floor, resting on an about 2000 inhabitants, and is seated on both sides of the arch, remains, to which there is an ascent by stone steps, as Barrow; the bridge, which contains nine arches, dividing it there is to the top, which is completely covered over with ivy, into nearly equal portions: that on the east side consists of planted by the present possessors of the castle. At the other, 178 houses, and that on the west of 191, being 369 houses in or south-west angle of the enclosure, are the remains of a lesser all. The parish church of Wells, the Roman Catholic chapel, tower, which is of a rotund form and of great strength, the walls and a national school-house, are on the Wells side of the river, being ten feet thick. It is still more dilapidated than the as is also the ruined castle represented in our illustration. great keep, and is only 24 feet high, having a flight of steps
To the erection of this castle the town owes its origin. As | leading to its summit. a position of great military importance to the interests of the The present name of the town, however, is derived from the first Anglo-Norman settlers in Ireland, it was erected in 1181, bridge, which was erected in 1320 to facilitate the intercourse either by the renowned Hugh de Lacy himself, or by John de between the religious houses of old and new Leighlin, by Mau
Clahull, or De Claville, "to whom De Lacy gave the mar- rice Jakis, a canon of the cathedral of Kildare, whose memory shallshipp of all Leinster, and the land between Aghavoe and as a bridge-builder is deservedly preserved, having also erected Leighlin
the bridges of Kilcullen and Št Woolstan's over the Liffey,