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of, the British, but it was distinctly which had long expired in fact. His agreed that the system was to be car- new - made majesty was a very reried into effect by his own officers, spectable monarch, as kings go in and there was no machinery to com- India ; but the queerest piece of pel him or them to their duty: You royalty ever manufactured in India have a sovereign, ministers, tribunals, itself, and by the great firm of kinglaws, customs, revenue system, land- makers, whom rival politicians are holders, and population, all against now trying to“ sell up,” in Leadenyou. They like oppression and plun- hall Street, was his son and successor der, while you want justice, bene- Nussur, also a defender of the faith; ficence, and humanity. For this re- but who prided himself on nothing form your whole agency is a Resident so much as his attachment to the stationed at the native court, to ad- English. This sentiment was indulged, vise and remonstrate. As a matter not by cultivating our notions of jus of course the advice is disregarded. tice and liberty, or even by courting The remonstrances share the same the advice of our Resident, but by fate, unless endorsed by physical adopting the English garb-chimneyforce. The Resident grows more pot topee included-surrounding himtroublesome and more peremptory. self with English adventurers of the Every interference with the native lowest class for his private compangovernment renders further interfer- ions, and dining in the English fashion ence less avoidable. Reproaches, of the day, when boon companions recriminations, and threats, form the deemed it de rigueur to terminate the staple of the correspondence, till the entertainment beneath the table. prince, if a powerful one, grows A curious picture of these resulky and dangerous — if impotent, vels, where the master was an Engbecomes contemptible alike in British Jish barber, is given in a little book and native eyes. Nothing is done entitled, Private Life of an Eastern except under dread of the ultima King, by a member of his household. ratio, which always resides in the The details find ample corroboration stronger power. The application of in the recent valuable publication of this resource is more and more looked Sir W. Sleeman. The story of The to and talked about, and in the end General, for example (of which the policy and justice the interest of the member of the household declares natives no less than our own-call for himself an eyewitness),

incredible as the removal of a government which it might be deemed without authocannot govern, and the administration rity, is plainly to be recognised in Sir of its functions by those upon whom William Sleeman's History of Rajah Divine Providence, in bestowing Ghalib Jung. This individual had power, has also imposed the respon- been raised by Ghazee-ud-Deen from sibility of its exercise.

a very humble grade to high staThus things ran their course in tion, from which he was again deOude. Saadut Ali being gathered graded, plundered, and reduced to to his fathers, Ghazee, his son, sat death's door by harsh treatment and on the musnud, rejoicing in the cog- want of food. After the accession nomen of Ud-Deen, Defender of the of Nussur he contrived to crawl Faith. Ghazee, however, lent the back again to court, and insinuating British Feringhee two millions of himself into the king's private demoney for the

Nepaul war, and at its baucheries, became useful in ways to close got the Terai,* in liquidation of which his English jolly friends could half the debt ; an arrangement which not stoop.

not stoop. He stood accordingly has turned out not so bad for Oude as high in his majesty's favour, received it appeared. This champion of Islam the command of the police and a was further gratified by Lord Hast- brigade of infantry, and was coming with the title of King, imply. monly known in the household as ing the formal renunciation of a de- « The General.” Of course he enpendence on the Mogul Emperor, riched himself; of course, also, he

A marshy forest ceded by Nepaul, which extends along the foot of the Himalayas.

+ Journey through the Kingdom of Oude in 1849.50.


was hated by the prime-minister, they remained for about two hours, when who was the constant butt of his ri- other attendants came in, struck off his dicule with the merry monarch. The turban on the floor, and bad it kicked hour of the general's disgrace came,

out of the room by the sweepers. however, with this king as with his

They then dragged out Ghalib Jung,

and thrust him into prison. The next father. He was secretly accused to his majesty of rivalling him in his day heavy iron fetters were put upon

his legs, and upon those of three of his amours; but as this was a point on which an Oriental dreads publicity, along with him; and his mother, father,

principal followers, who were imprisoned the incensed monarch“ bided his wife, and daughters were made prisontime” for some plausible ground of ers in their own houses; and all the propunishment.

perty of the family that could be found There is a little difference in the was confiscated. On the third day, causa belli, as related by our eye- while still in irons, Ghalib Jung and his witness, and by Sir W. Sleeman, who

three followers were tied up and flogged had the story from native authority severely, to make them point out any some years after . The former also That night the king got drunk, and be

hidden treasure that they might have. paints the treatment of the unfortu- fore many persons ordered the minister nate victims in darker colours than

to have Ghalib Jung's right hand and the latter. Still, as in duty bound, nose cut off forthwith." let the official account have the preference.

This, it seems, was remitted from

dread of the Resident. “ On the 7th of October 1835, the king was conversing with Ghalib Jung, “The king retired to rest, and the in one of his private apartments, on af- next morning bad Ghalib Jung and his fairs of state. Several crowns stood on three followers again tied up and flogged. the table for the king's inspection. They Six or seven days after, all Ghalib Jung's had been prepared under Mucka the attendants were taken from him, and no tailor's inspection, from materials pur- person was permitted to enter the room chased by him. He always charged the where he lay in irons, and he could, in king ten times the price of the articles consequence, get neither food nor drink which he was ordered to provide, and of any kind. On the 19th of October, Ghalib Jung thought the occasion fa- the king ordered all the females of vourable to expose his misconduct to his Ghalib Jung's family to be brought on master. He took up one of the crowns, foot from their houses to the palace by put his left hand into it, and turning it force, and publicly declared that they round on his finger, pointed out the should all on the next day have their flimsy nature of the materials with which hair shaved off, be stripped naked, and it had been made. His left finger slip- in that state turned out into the street. ped through the silk on the crown, After giving these orders the king went whether accidentally or designedly, to to bed, and the females were all brought, prove the flimsy nature of the silk and as ordered, to the palace, but the symto exasperate the king, is not known; pathies of the king's own servants were but on seeing the finger pass through excited by the sufferings of these unofthe crown, his majesty left the room fending females, and they disobeyed the without saying a word.* Soon after order for their being made to walk several attendants came in, surrounded foot through the streets, and brought Ghalib Jung, and commanded him to them in covered litters.t remain until further orders. In this state “ The Resident, apprehending that


The member of the household says his majesty was twirling his own European hat on his own royal thumb when the latter went through the top ; and the “ general,” thinking to be witty, exclaimed," there is a hole in your majesty's crown.” The royal countenance darkened, he declared the pun to be treason, and adjudged the offender to death.

+ Nevertheless, the member of the household describes them as suffering the greatest hardships and indignities, and was particularly affected by the sight of the culprit's aged father lying almost naked in the shed where the poor “ general” was confined. He adds, that the Resident's interference was obtained by himself and the other European attendants in the palace after some difficulty, as it was only a native that was in danger, and the king had a right to do as he pleased with the patives.

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these poor females might be further dis- sickened any man, not an Asiatic, of graced, and Ghalib Jung starved to death, public life. Ghalib, however, with determined to interpose, and demandedan the true Hindu pertinacity, having interview while the king was still in bed. got out of confinement on Nussur's He found the king sullen and doggedly death by the payment of a large silent. The minister was present, and bribe, again tempted his fate in the spoke for his master. He denied what

court where he had suffered was known to be true, that the prisoner had been kept for two days and much, was again restored to office, two nights without food or drink ; but and died in honour at the venerable admitted that he had been tied up and age of eighty. He was a consumflogged severely, and that the females of mate villain, by the way, and richly his family were still there, but he pro- deserved hanging. mised to send them back. He said that Nussur-ud-Deen, notwithstanding it was necessary to confiscate the pro, such little bursts of royal caprice, perty of the prisoner, since he owed

was decidedly a popular monarch. large sums to the state. The females Sir W. Sleeman expressly declares were all sent back to their homes, and that “the people of Lucknow liked Ghalib Jung was permitted to have four

their king; and as there is no of his own servants in attendance upon disputing of tastes, the British Govhim."

ernment left them liberally to the The poor “ general,” however, was enjoyment. The interference of the not to be let off.

Resident on behalf of the ladies Rajah Dursun Sing, the great re- of Ghalib Jung's harem was venue contractor, and at that time the exception ; the rule was to limit most powerful of the king's subjects be- British protection to British subjects. yond the precincts of the court, had, The noses, eyes, and heads of the like the minister himself, been often

native population were entirely at his thwarted by Ghalib Jung when in power ; and, after the interposition of bitual violation of the treaty with

majesty's disposal, and even his hathe Resident, he applied to have him put

put the British, dissipating the revenue, into his power.

The king and minister were pleased at the thought of making

and denying justice to the people, their victim suffer beyond the immediate

were left unnoticed by our Governsupervision of a vigilant Resident, and ment, content with the charitable the minister made him over to the rajah supposition that the king was mad, for a consideration, it is said, of three lacs and waiting for a more manageable of rupees ; and at the same time assured


The musnud was at last the Resident that this was the only safe

vacated, and again, it was stated, way to rescue him from the further ven

without a legitimate son to succeed, geance of an exasperated king ; that Ra.

--a default which recurs with curious jah Dursun Sing was a friend of the culprit's, and would provide him and his

pertinacity in the East, in spite of family and attendants with ample accom

the precautionary practice of polymodation and comfort. This rajah,

gamy. A disturbance, as usual, took however, had him put into an iron cage,

place in the palace, where the Padand sent to his fort at Shatgunge, where, sha Begum had managed to force report says, he had snakes and scorpions


with her grandson into the put into the cage to torment and destroy hall of audience, and fancied the him, but that Ghalib Jung had great coup to be accomplished by

charmed life,' and escaped their poison. placing him in the royal seat. The The object is said to have been to tor

British Resident, however, sent for ment and destroy him without leaving

a larger force, turned out the inupon his body any marks of violence.”

truder, and enthroned another son of This was a dose that would have

Saadut Ali as the legitimate heir. *


* The story is told at length in Sir W. Sleeman's book, vol. ii. p. 150-177. The denouement was not effected without a regular battle, in which the Resident's life was in imminent danger, and forty or fifty of the Begum's followers were killed. After all, the “pretender" appears to have been the legitimate son of the deceased king, by whom, however, he had been repudiated while alive. Sir William's account of this king, with his many wives and concubines, is more curious than edifying.



The new prince received the Gov- the establishment of which was stiernor - Generals permission to en- pulated for in 1801, with the threat large his style and title to the truly of British management in case of royal and comprehensive designation failure. of " Abool Futteh Moen-u-Deen, Sul- Kings and governments of all sorts, tani Zaman Nowsherawan - i-audil, however, take a good deal of threatMohammed Ali Shah, Padshahí ening before they mend their ways; Oudh !”

and so Amjad Ali Shah passed to His majesty, however, proved a very the royal mausoleum in Lucknow tame Padishah indeed, and cared as after thoroughly solving the problem little for the deen as any of bis most of the circumlocution-office-“how degenerate predecessors. He bound not to do it.” It was then that himself to accept any terms that Wajid Ali Shah, who now occupies Lord Auckland might impose, and a convenient, though perhaps circumnew treaty was actually concluded, scribed, apartments, on the banks of correcting the deficiencies which the Hooghly, became Lord of Lucktime had manifested in Lord Wellesley's. The king was again allowed Of this “crowned head,” Sir W. to retain a large military force for Sleeman gives the following descripthe purpose of government, a part of tion :which was organised and disciplined by British officers. On the other

The present sovereign never hears a reform in the civil administration, the pursuit of his personal gratifications. hand, in renewing the stipulation for complaint, or reads a petition or report

of any kind. He is entirely taken up in care was taken to introduce the pen- He has no desire to be thought to take alty of assumption by the British

any interest whatever in public affairs, in the event of continued maladmi- and is altogether regardless of the duties nistration. This treaty, however, and responsibilities of his high office. was abrogated by the Home autho- He lives exclusively in the society of rities, partly on account of a degree fiddlers, eunuchs, and women; be has of compulsion applied to obtain

the done so since his childhood, and is likely king's assent; but chiefly on ac

to do so till the last. His disrelish for count of a payment of sixteen lacs

any other society has become inveterate ; annually, which it imposed upon spite of average natural capacity, and more

he cannot keep awake in any other. In Oude for the support of the new mi

than average facility in the cultivation litary force.

The Court of Direc- of light literature, or at least “de faire tors very justly and honourably ob- des petites vers de sa façon,” his underserved, that they were bound, as the standing has become so emasculated, that consideration of the cession of terri- he is altogether unfit for the conduct tory in 1801, to undertake the whole of his domestic, much less his public military defence of the kingdom, and affairs. He sees occasionally his prime no further sum could be exacted minister, who takes care to persuade him without a breach of faith.

that he does all that a king ought to do ; Poor Abool Futteh, &c., commonly and nothing whatever of any other min

ister. He holds no communication whatcalled Mahommed Ali, was a well-dis

ever with brothers, uncles, cousins, or posed man, and not without habits

any of the native gentlemen at Lucknow, of business; but old and timid, and or the landed or official aristocracy of withal sorely troubled with rheumat

the country. He sometimes admits a ism. Unequal to much bodily exer- few poets or poetasters to hear and tion, the Resident was warned by his praise his verses, and commands the surgeon that any unusual excitement unwilling attendance of some of his relaor vexation would be likely to induce tions to witness and applaud the acting apoplexy. So this

very respect

of some of bis own silly comedies, on the able old man

was left without much penalty of forfeiting their stipends ; but bother till he went the way of all flesh

any one who presumes to approach him in 1842; and his son, Amjad Ali, ruled

even in his rides or drives with a peti

tion for justice, is instantly clapped into the holy land of the "twice born.”

prison, or otherwise severely punished !Then Governors-General and Residents got more impatient. A period Lord Hardinge found it necessary, was limited for the reformed system, at a personal interview with this


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respectable monarch, to exact, not of petitions delivered to me, 'with quionly a promise but a written agree- vering lip and tearful eye,' by persons ment, that he would not appoint any

who have been plundered of all they songster or eunuch to civil or revenue

possessed, had their dearest relatives

murdered or tortured to death, and their offices. The manner in which this

habitations burnt to the ground, by word of promise was kept to the ear,

gangs of ruffians, under landlords of high was, that the king's favourites, in- birth and pretensions, whom they had stead of taking the appointments never wronged or offended; some merely themselves, recommended others for because they happened to have property, a consideration. At last Lord Dal which the ruffians wished to take ; others, housie ordered the Resident, Colonel because they presumed to live and laSleeman, to make a tour through the bour upon lands which they coveted, or kingdom, and see for himself the deserted and wished to have left waste. state of things which had been so

In these attacks, neither age, nor sex, long crying for redress. The result

nor condition are spared. The greater of this tour has been just given to part of the leaders of these gangs of the public, in two instructive, though ing descent from the sun and moon, or

ruffians are Rajpoot landholders, boastunfortunately not well arranged, vol- from the demigods who figure in the umes. Sir W. Sleeman was a man

Hindoo religious fictions of the Poorans. of shrewd powers of observation, with There are, however, a great many a dry humour which, added to his Mohammedans at the head of similar vast Indian experience, rendered him gangs. A landholder, of whatever dean excellent story-teller in conversa- gree, who is opposed to his Government, tion ; but his style of writing is not from whatever cause, considers himself always clear or concise, and his pub- in a state of war; and he considers a lication being in the shape of a diary, those things which he is forbidden to do

state of war to authorise his doing all the events are recorded not in their true historical order, but as they be- happens to be a native officer or sipahee

in a state of peace. Unless the sufferer came known to the writer. Not- of our army, who enjoys the privilege of withstanding these drawbacks, how- urging his claims through the Resident, ever, the work contains deeply inte- it is a cruel mockery to refer him for reresting revelations of the state of the dress to any existing local authority. government and population of Oude, One not only feels that it is so, but sees besides curious, and sometimes mar- that the sufferer thinks that he must know vellous, anecdotes of natural and so- it to be so. No such authority considers cial phenomena.

it to be any part of his duty to arrest Of the former kind, take the fol- evil-doers, and inquire into and redress lowing compendious specimen :

wrongs suffered by individuals, or fami

lies, or village communities. Should he The most numerous and distressing arrest such people, he would have to class of beggars that importune me, are subsist and accommodate them at his those who beg redress for their wrongs, own cost, or to send them to Lucknow, and a remedy for their grievances—their with the assurance that they would in a name indeed is Legion, and their wrongs few days, or a few weeks, purchase their and grievances are altogether without way out again, in spite of the clearest remedy, under the present Government, proofs of the murders, robberies, torturand inveterately vicious system of ad- ings, dishonourings, houseburnings, &c., ministration. It is painful to listen to which they have committed. No senall these compiaints, and to have to refer tence which any one local authority the sufferers for redress to authorities could pass on such offenders, would be who want both the power and the will recognised by any other authority in the to afford it; especially when one knows State as valid, or sufficient to justify him that a remedy for almost every evil is in receiving and holding them in conhoped for from a visit such as the poor finement for a single day. The local people are now receiving from the Resi- authorities, therefore, either leave the dent. He is expected 'to wipe the tears wrong-doers unmolested, with the underfrom off all faces,' and feels that he can standing that they are to abstain from wipe them from hardly any. The reck- doing any such wrong within their jurisless disregard shown by the depredators dictions, as may endanger or impede the of all classes and degrees to the suffer- collection of revenues during their period ings of their victims, whatever be the of office, or release them with that undercause of discontent, or object, or pursuit, standing, after they have squeezed all is lamentable. I have every day scores they can out of them.

The wrong

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