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“and thine are mine, and I am glorified in them.” 1 Now did our Lord intend to include Judas, even after he had bargained to betray him, in this number of whom he said these things, for whom he thus prayed, and in whom he was glorified 1-If not, either the word “given,” in the verse first quoted, must mean, given to be an apostle, or rather the exception is made in the same manner, as when our Lord says ; “ There were many lepers “in Israel in the days of Eliseus, but none of " them was healed saving Naaman the Syrian.” The same original word is there used as in the passage under consideration ; (és pes' :) as it is in other places, where the person excepted cannot be included in the number first specified.-Men may deprive themselves of the excellent benefit, of being placed in a state most favourable for the
attainment of salvation ;' but the question is, whether any true believers, who are “ called, and “ chosen, and faithful,” are thus left to deprive themselves. “Foreknowledge does not imply
control or influence.' It certainly does not imply compulsion. But, “ Sarely the wrath of man shall “ praise him,” (God) “and the remainder of « wrath shall he restrain.” 2 He“ stilleth the noise “ of the seas, and the noise of the waves, and the “ madness of the people.” 3 Here is control, no doubt, implied in foreknowledge, even in respect of the most wicked men : and, if influence be denied, the influence of restraining grace on the
unruly wills and affections of sinful men; and the influence of renewing grace on the minds of believers ; in short the whole of Christianity is - John xvii. 6–10. Ps. Ixxvi. 10. Ps. Ixv. 7.
denied. But “ known unto God are all his works “ from the beginning of the world.” ]
* The observation of our Saviour, “When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth. no hands against me," appears to indicate that there were other means by which the Son of man might have been delivered unto death ; so that the treason of Judas cannot be considered as a necessary part of the scheme of man's redemp‘tion. It pleased God to make use of Judas, as of other wicked men on other occasions, as instruments to fulfil his purpose, but they first made themselves fit agents.'2
Whatever other means there might be, by 'which the Son of man could have been delivered ‘unto death,' there could be none which were not foreknown ; and the way in which he was betrayed was predetermined and foretold. “The Son of “ man goeth as it is written of him." 3 " And the 6. Son of man goeth as it was determined.” 4 « So that the treason of Judas was a necessary part of
the scheme of man's redemption ;' though Judas acted voluntarily, without any compulsion, or any regard to God's determination and prediction, in order to gratify his own avarice.
* If the Calvinists say, that Judas was never in reality one of the elect, we may ask what proof they can bring of any difference between him
and the other eleven apostles, except works? And 'to grant that this is the only difference is to grant Acts xv. 18.
? Ref. 209.
" that works are necessary evidence of the secusrity of any man's election.'
Here I am happy, in the name of most Calvinists, and perhaps of all evangelical clergymen, to agree with his Lordship, ' that works are necessary
evidence of the security of any man's election;' nay, the only proof imaginable of his election itself. Indeed nothing but works indisputably ‘good before God,' the “fruits of the Spirit,” can evidence our election of God.2 How strangely and unaccountably are our sentiments misunderstood! The very point is adduced as subversive of our doctrine, which we constantly and strenuously insist upon as an essential part of it.!
* St. Paul says to the Thessalonians, “ We give thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you in our prayers ; remembering, with'out ceasing, your work of faith, and labour of love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, in the sight of God and our Father; “knowing, brethren beloved, your election of • God:” this is addressed to all the Thessalonians, 'to the whole body of Christians at Thessalonica; ' and the election here spoken of means their 'being called to the knowledge of the gospel ; and their “ work of faith, and labour of love, and patience of hope," here commended, refer to the * sincerity and firmness with which they adhered to the Christian profession. 3
After quoting the apostle's words to the Thessalonians, which I should otherwise have adduced, as explaining our sentiments on the subject of the
' Ref. 209. ? 1 Thess. i. 3, 4. Ref. 209, 210.
last remark, it is added ; - This is addressed to all the Thessalonians, the whole body of Christians at Thessalonica. Would it not be obvious from this to consider Thessalonica like London or York, in which the bulk of the inhabitants are professed Christians ? But was this really the case? The history of the planting of a church at Thessalonica is comprised in few verses ; 1 from which a cursory reader would be apt to conclude that a very small number were converted. Internal evidence however, in this epistle, shews that a considerable church was collected: yet, I think, few will deliberately aver that a twentieth part of the inhabitants of that large city professed Christianity. It is also evident that the apostle was most completely satisfied, that the professed Christians there were almost all true believers, who shewed their faith by their works. His words, however, are restricted to those, concerning whom he “ re“ membered their work of faith, and labour of “ love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus « Christ, in the sight of God and our Father," from which he inferred their “ election of God;” and they cannot possibly be applied to any other persons mingled among them, as tares amidst the wheat; for these, not having in the sight of God living faith, unfeigned love, and patient, purifying hope, were not“ of them,” though living among them. But the apostle pursues the subject:“For “our gospel came not to you in word only, but in “ power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much as“surance: as ye know what manner of men we “ were among you for your sake; and ye became
i Acts xvii, 1–9.
“ followers” (or imitators, Mirenza) “ of us, and of “ the Lord, having received the word of God in “ much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost: so " that ye became ensamples to all that believe in “ Macedonia and Achaia.") From these proofs the apostle inferred their “election of God:” and can these things be found in any except true Christians? Do they agree to the whole body of Christians, so called, in the church of England, or in any other modern church, or churches at least, where any besides communicants (carefully admitted, and on acting inconsistently impartially excluded,) form a part of the church? Even there it may be supposed that the most zealous friends of that system would hardly think their churches equal to the church at Thessalonica. In the next chapter he says: “We thank God without ceasing, “ because when ye received the word of truth, “ which ye heard of us, ye received it not as, the “ word of men, but, as it is in truth, the word of “ God, which effectually worketh also in you that “ believe.”? Can this be said of the bulk of modern Christian churches ? But, if indeed they 'adhered with sincerity and firmness to the Chris
tian profession,' they were certainly true Christians; and their “ election of God,” however explained, was thus demonstrated. 3
«« God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit, ‘and belief of the truth; whereunto he called you .by our gospel.” The sanctification of the Spirit '1 Thess. i. 5–10.
' 1 Thess. ii. 13. * 2 Thess. ii. 10- 14