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NATIONAL EDUCATION we may then hope for good fruit in due
SOCIETY. Ar the last meeting of the General Com- " In adverting, however, to the blessed mittee of the National Society for the Edu
effects which education has produced cation of the Poor, grants were made for the
among the nations of Europe, we cannot,
we ought not, to overlook the inestimable erection, extension, or fitting-up of school
advantages which it has so abundantly rooms : namely, to Stand, Manchester; conferred on the inhabitants of these faAldridge, Somerset; Kidlington, Oxford; voured isles. Wherever we cast our eyes Great Bookham, Surrey; Burnley, Lanca- around us, whether we behold our milishire; Carmarthen, N. W.; and Honiton, tary and naval establishments, whether we Devon. Several conditional grants, previ. survey our juridical and religious instituously made, were confirmed. The following tions, or whether, lastly, we view the schools were received into union with the many home comforts enjoyed by the great Society: Withersfield, Suffolk ; Keighley, the British nation may fairly compete with,
body of the people; in all these respects, York ; Betchworth Castle, near Dorking; if not claim a superiority over, every Peckham, girls' school; Aldridge, Somer- other empire on the face of the globe. set, girls' school; St. Matthew's District, Now, to what circumstances can this state Manchester; Kidlington, Oxford; Hud- of elevation fairly be attributed ? To what, dersfield, York; Stand, in Manchester; but to that spread of intelligence, that good Great Bookham, Surrey; Ringley, Che
bense, and above all that good feeling, shire; Lampeter Pont Stephen, Cardigan ;
which are so generally diffused over the Horsley, Derby; Calmstock, Devon, Lan
mass of the British population. The many
are enlightened, and are taught their duty vreehva, Monmouth ; Honiton, Devon.
both to God and man. They know the The Bishop of Bath and Wells, in an in- blessings they enjoy. They are willing to teresting discourse, just published, strong- make any sacrifices in order to preserve ly advocates the cause of education, espe- them. cially as conducted by the National So- “ The same truth may also forcibly be ciety. We gladly transcribe the following brought home to us, by a comparison of extracts.
the different portions of our empire. In
no part of the united kingdom has so great “In proceeding to survey the condition an attention been shewn to the general of modern Europe, we are immediately education of the people, as in the northern struck with the rapid progress that has been districts. In Scotland, by legislative made in civilization and power, by the sub- enactments of old, a school-master, with a jects of the great northern potentate. This school-room, a stipend, house, and garden, effect may principally be attributed to the have been assigned to every parish. And anxiety and care displayed by the late so- the manners of the people correspond with vereigns of Russia, in the institution of the tuition they receive. Civil commoschools, and the improvement of youth, tions, deeds of violence, and bloodshed, throughout the whole of their extended seldom, if ever, disgrace the peaceful inhadominions.”
bitants of Scotia. Aud, to no other cause, " It was observed by the benevolent that we know, except to the cultivated inHoward, in his visitation of gaols, that tellect, and improved heart of the people, there were few crimes committed in Swit- arising out of education, can this superiorzerland, and of course but few prisoners. ity, with justice, be attributed. And he accounts for the fact by stating, “ The same observation may be applied, that uncommon pains were taken by the and with equal truth, to the northern and inhabitants of that country, in affording to southern divisions of our sister isle. It their children a religious education. It is is well known and acknowledged, that upon record also, that, amongst a large so- the northern part of Ireland is more ciety of Lutherans, who were equally at- civilized, more tranquil, and, by consetentive to the instruction of their youth, quence, more flourishing than its southern • not one of the whole number underwent neighbour. Here, should it again be askthe ignominy of a legal punishment of any ed, to what circumstances can this striking kind, in the course of seventeen years.' difference be ascribed, we should reply, that Believe me, the same effect will always it is to be accounted for from the different follow, where the same means are adopted. degree in which the poorer classes are eduIf we wish to empty our own gaols, we cated in the two districts, and from this must fix early and deep impressions on the cause alone. According to calculations ductile minds of youth. We must ingraft which have been made, the number of on their hearts the knowledge of God, and children receiving education is greater in him."
the northern than in the southern division engine, the direction of which is yet in our of Ireland, and that in a very large pro- hands. portion.”
“ We allow, that the most secure, and The Bishop suggests various useful and the most ellective method of affording inbenevolent measures for the improvement struction to youth, is by domestic educaof National Schools. We copy with plea
tion. No other mode can fully supply the sure the following passages.
loss of paternal authority, and maternal
affection. But the poor are, of necessity, “ Suffer me then to remind you, that the engaged in manual occupations; and must thing next in importance to a deep sense of religion, is the habit of industry, and a
by daily labour earn their daily bread. knowledge of some means of practicable Surely then it is a Christian duty
, incumuseful employment. The one should, if of the poor which the poor are unable to
bent upon all, to do that for the children possible, be taught with, and accompany do of themselves : to take care that their the other. Without religion, man is little better than the beust that perisheth; with off pring learn, that there is a God, and
will be an hereafter." out the ability of pursuing some trade, or occupation, he may be turned out into the world, a bane and a burthen to all around CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
The Committee have communicated to “Every officiating minister is required the friends of the Society the following by the canons of our church to catechize statement, relative to its funds. and examine the children of his parish: he At the termination of the first half of the is remunerated also by the legislature, for
current year, the income of the Society had watching over and improving the morals of fallen short, by a very considerable sum, of the people ; and, what is beyond all earthly the corresponding half of the preceding year. considerations, he is cominanded by the great Shepherd of souls to feed his tíock. Though new Associations have been form. Surely then it is the duty of the clergy to
ed, the returns from them have not been superintend and direct their own parochial
of such an amount as to supply the deschools. Thus, from their local know. ficiencies of the old Associations. The ledge, each imperfection, as it arose, might Society nearly expends from year to year be removed, and national education would its whole income; and as its exertions be rendered productive of unmixed national are enlarged, there will be an increasing good. “ A Saturday afternoon, devoted to a
expenditure in each mission. The funded viva voce inquiry into the progress made by
property of the Society is at present con. the children in religious knowledge, would
siderably less than the amount of halfbe a truly Christian employment of that -year's expenditure. If the deficiency in time. It might duly prepare the scholars the income of the Society is not retrieved, for the approaching Sabbath. It would some of those plans which God has hitherenable the minister to ascertain, whether to blessed must be abandoned ; and it the children really comprehended what they would become necessary to reduce within were taught; or whether they merely learnt much narrower limits, if not altogether to and answered by rote, without being made, either wiser
, or better
. Thus might withdraw, some of those missions, the the Christian minister lead the youth of extension of which the state of the world his parish from the school-room to the loudly and powerfully claims from British church, and enable them, under the Divine Christians. blessing, to pass through the grave to Though various concurrent causes have those mansions which are not made with probably contributed to this deficiency, hands, eternal in the heavens."
the Committee state their conviction, that “We must allow, and we do so with
one principal cause has been their incomregret, that crimes, and particularly juvenile delinquencies, have increased, of petency to meet the wishes of the Associalate, to a very alarming degree.” • The
tions that more persons might visit them cause may justly, as we think, be ac
at their anniversaries, and for a longer counted for, by the large increase of our
period of time. Instead of the arrangepopulation ; and, partly, by those diffi- ment by which it was provided that four culties and bereavements to which our visitors of Associations should be apmanufacturers have been of late exposed. pointed in the place of a third secretary, But be the amount of crime, and the causes it is intended to appoint two official of it, what they may, still the fact unde. visitors of Associations, who shall be niably holds out to us a most impressive devoted to the service of the Society. admonition and warning: It calls upon The Committee cherish the hope that us, by every motive which ought to infuence the heart of man, to afford education other clergymen will not fail gratuitously to the young-to ground that education on to render them that aid in visiting Associaa knowledge of the word of God-and to tions which will still be absolutely regive a proper impulse to that important quisite, and which has been one principal printed and circulated :“ It is now nearly five years since the “First century-St. Clemens, called RoIrish Society established its first schools manus, says, Look diligently into the in the Kingscourt district : ring that Scriptures, the true oracles of the Holy period some of us have been connected Spirit.' (Ad Corinth. i. 5.) with the institution ; many of us have “ Third century- Origen : • In the two jealously and minutely observed its opera- Testaments every word that appertaineth tions; and, from our practical knowledge unto God may be found out and discussed; of its beneficent effects, are now unani. and all knowledge of things out of them mously of opinion that it is one among may be understood: but if any thing do this long-neglected, ignorant, and immoral We shall give some account in another people; and various correspondents have Number of the Society's proceedings, from
means of raising the missionary spirit the many education establishments of Irethroughout the country, and of gathering land, for which the Irish peasantry have together the funds of former years. reason ever to be grateful; by it the sa
Never had the society more ample cred Scriptures, in our native language, fields of labour open before them, and have been supplied in the most destitute more general encouragement to proceed. parts of the country, Irish schools planted; And never have its claims been publicly and, in those schools, not merely the made known, without producing an in. young, but the middle-aged and the old, crease to its resources. The Committee have been taught to read, in their own therefore address their appeal to the whole language, of the wonderful works of God. body of the Society's supporters, with the “We do not consider the Irish a proseutnost confidence that the case needs only lyting society-nothing connected either to be known, 'in order to produce active with its nature, laws, or operations warand zealous exertions. There are yet many rants the charge of proselytism-during large towns and parishes in which little or the period of our connection with that sonothing has been done in support of the ciety, no Protestant connected with the Society; and if its various friends would institution has ever interfered with our undertake to ascertain what openings church or religious opinions from our there are in their respective neighbour- teachers being Roman Catholics and our hoods, and in what places it is probable inspectors Roman Catholics, the society that Associations might be formed, and at cannot reasonably be termed a proselyting, the same time endeavour to revive those society; unless it be admitted that scripwhich are languishing, there can be little tural knowledge conduces to proselytism; doubt, from past experience, but that such a conclusion which, we presume, our pasefforts would tend to a large increase in tors will not readily admit; for if the the resources of the Society.
Scriptures be the word of God, and the
• Roman Catholic Church be founded on IRISH SOCIETY OF DUBLIN. that word, the reading of the Scriptures
We hail with joy every succeeding must rather tend to attach us to than indication of the diminishing sway of draw us from that church. the corrupt Church of Rome over its “ Ever since our connexion with the votaries. The number of persons in Ire Irish Society, we have been most anxiously land who have renounced the errors of endeavouring to obtain scriptural knowPopery is very large ; but we augur less ledge; also to ascertain whether or not by from individual instances of conversion, the reading of the Scriptures we violate though now so numerous, than from the ancient laws or councils of the churchthe circumstance that scriptural educa- we have, connected with the district, Irish tion is widely on the increase ; that ihe teachers of intelligence and understanding, Scriptures themselves are extensively in men classically educated, who have recirculation; and that the people at large, course to church history, are intimately as these conversions powerfully indicate, acquainted with the history of the church, are beginniug to assert their right to read and can read the writings of the fathers in and think for themselves. Our readers their original language-the result of their will not have forgotten the meinorable re- investigation and inquiry has been, that, solutions of 490 Roman-Catholic teachers instead of the reading of the Scriptures and scholars connected with the Irish So- being forbidden, it is most strenuously enciety, asserting the right and benefit of joined by fathers, popes, and councils of reading the Scriptures. Another general the Roman Catholic Church. meeting of the Irish masters, connected “ For the benefit of those who are ignowith the same Society, has recently been rant, and may not have access to books, the held, at which 125 masters were present, following authorities, out of many, for the when the following resolutions were right of the laity to read the Scriptures, are passed:
remain, which the holy Scriptures do not foundland, have occupied, as our readers determine, no other kind of Scripture ought are aware, several important stations in the to be received.' (In Levit. Hom. V.) colony-namely, St. John's, with Quidi
“ Fourth century- Believe all things Vidi, Petty Harbour, Harbour Grace, that are written : the things that are not Carbonnierre, Trinity, and Bonavista : at written, neither think upon nor inquire which stations twelve teachers are emafter.' (Answer by Euseb. Pamphyli, in ployed, who have given instruction to at the name of 318 fathers at the first Coun. least 2000 scholars. The conductors state cil of Nice; A. D. 325.)
that they have met with great encourage“Sixth century-Pope St. Gregory the ment; and that the people acknowledge Great : What is the sacred Scripture the value of the services of the Society, by but an epistle of the cmnipotent God to cheerfully contributing what they can tohis creatures ? The Governor of heaven, wards the support and erection of the the Lord of men and angels, hath sent schools. A desire for obtaining instruction you letters affecting your life; and yet you has been strongly excited in the colony; neglect to read anxiously those epistles! I and many thousands of persons are debeseech you, therefore, study and meditate manding this boon at the bands of the daily on the words of your Creator.' Society, who cannot impart it for want of (Epist. Lib. iv. Indict. 12. Ep. 31. Ed. suficient funds. From St. John's to Par. 1705.)
Bonavista, the whole line of coast is deeply “Eleventh century-Theopłıylact : 'Say indented with numerous bays, inhabited' not the Bible is for clergymen only; it is by isolated portions of the population of the designed for every Christien.'
island, which averages 100,000. In Con“We most heartily accord with and una- ception Bay alone, the population is estinimously adopt the sentiments, contained mated at 19,000. The communication in a resolution passed at a meeting of our
between the inhabitants of these separate fellow-Catholics in the chapel of St. Nicho- districts is alınost exclusively by water: so las, in Galway, on the 19th day of August that the children are stationary; and unless lastế That freedom of conscience is the instruction is carried to their doors, they natural and inherent right of all mankind; must remain destitute of its blessings. and is, in its nature, incapable of being Under these circumstances, twenty schools surrendered without a crime; or taken would atford but a scanty provision. To away by force, without oppression.' On erect and support these, the Newfoundthe above self-evident principles, we do land School Society looks with confi. consider, that, as our inherent right, we dence to the friends of Christian education should enjoy freedom of conscience in in the mother country; and they press their religious matters ; and that any attempt, claim the more urgently, as their funds either to wrest the Scriptures from us, or are at present totally inadequate to the deto deprive us of religious rites for reading mands upon their Christian benevolence. them, is not only criminal and oppressive, Subscriptions are received by Messrs. but equally a violation of our rights as hu- Whitmore, bankers, 24 Lombard-street ; man beings, and of our privilege as Ro- Messrs. Hatchard and Son, Piccadilly; and man Catholics. On the above authorities at the Society's Office, 13 Salisburyof fathers, councils, and popes, we are
square, Fleet-street. humbly of opinion, that our right, even as Roman Catholics, to read the Scriptures, COMMITTEE FOR IMPROVEMENT is incontrovertibly established. When the
OF THE GYPSIES. Scriptures are in Greek, Latin, French, A Committee has been formed at SouthItalian, &c. there is no just cause why ampton for the general improvement of they should not also be in Irish-and since the condition of the Gypsies. The Comthe Lord Jesus Christ has said .search mittee state, that a deep feeling of interest the Scriptures,' no creature or assemblage has been excited, in the minds of some beof creatures has a right to say “search nevolent persons in that town, in behalf of them not.''
at different times addressed us on the subtheir last Report and other documents.
ject from other parts of the kingdom. The
committee have issued the following queNEWFOUNDLAND SCHOOL ries, to which they request the replies of SOCIETY.
persons conversant with the subject :The Society for providing free Daily and 1. What has been done, within your Sunday Instruction for the poor of New- knowledge, for the moral, religious, and
general improvement of the Gypsies in fact, and rejoice in its but still, our daythis country, and with what success ? schools and our Sunday-schools leave &
2. In the case of a failure in any plan most important period of the life of man for their benefit, can you account for the wholly unprovided for. They seldom same?
open their doors to children who have 3. What do you recommend, from your not attained the age of seven years ; a own experience, as the best means to period young, indeed, for fulfilling any of adopt for the religious instruction and ge- the useful purposes of life, but not too neral improvement of the Gypsies, bearing young to have imbibed much which may in mind their wandering habits ?
mar their capacities for future usefulness : 4. Could you refer the Committee to any even before that early period, habits of persons who may have it in their power evil may be so far formed as greatly to to afford them information on the subject counteract the influence of the soundest in question?
instruction, and the best conducted disThe correspondents who have addressed cipline. us on the subject, do not appear to be “ Contemplate, for example, the conaware that numerous papers have appeared dition of the children of the poor in the in our volumes, directed to promote their · courts and alleys of this vast inetropolis ; benevolent object. See Christian Observer see them immersed in filth and wretched. for 1808, pp. 91, 496, 712; for 1809, pp. ness, tied down to a chair through their 286, 767; for 1810, pp. 82, 554 ; for 1815. tickety infancy, or lulled to lethargy with pp. 23, 141, 590; and 1821, p. 159. deleterious drugs, or ardent spirits; see
them dragged about by an elder sister, INFANT SCHOOL SOCIETY. herself needing maternal care, whilst both We extract from the Report read at their parents are toiling for the bread the last annual meeting of this society, which is to feed them; and then turned the following statements. It would be loose, as soon as they can run about, to highly beneficial to the public if this eo- join in the streets their companions in ciety were more widely known, and more squalidness and rags, from whom they largely supplied with funds to prosecute learn to lisp oaths with their first accents, its truly interesting and important plans and by whom they are soon initiated in of enlightened benevolence.
falsehood, imposture, and crime. Thus “ We are far from denying," say the do these hapless infants rise to youth and conductors, “ that much may be effected manhood, surrounded by every incitement in the way of moral reformation, even with to evil, without check or counsel, without an adult population, which has been left to the lessons of Christian instruction, or grow up in ignorance and vice. Surely, the softening influence of Christian symbowever, it can never be the true wis- pathy, until they ripen, in process of time, dom of the Christian philanthropist to into the naturity of wickedness; a burwait the maturity of ignorance and vice den to themselves, a disgrace to their fabefore he begins his conflict with them, milies, and a pest to society. or to suffer these inveterate enemies of “ Now, it is from this state of debasepublic peace and private happiness to woent, and from these wretched results of take root, and to gather strength from such a state, that infant schools are intime and babit, before he sets himself to tended to rescue our population. All counteract their influence. Ought he not their advantages it is not our present purrather to meet, and combat them in their pose to specify: this would be only to first approaches; and to prevent their repesi what has been said on former occagaining possession of the mind, rather sions. But this much we may remark, in than trust to the uncertain pussibility of passing, that iafant schools possess this their future expulsion ? Our chief hope cdvantage, that while they shield the tenof moral improvement, for our own coun- derest years of the young from the contatry and the world at large, diepends, mination of vicious example, and from the under the Divine blessing, on the early lessons of profaneness and pollution to be Christian training of the rising gena learnt in our streets, substitute the eleration. We shall be told, indeed, that ments of useful, and, above all, of Scripthis is a prevailing sentiment; and that tural knowledge ; while they do this, its general prevalence is fully attested by they interfere with no domestic tie, and the multitude of both Sunday and week- violate no recognized principle of sound day schools which cover the land; and by economic policy.” the many hundreds of thousands of our “ Being deeply impressed with the ad. youth who attend them. We admit the vantages of the Infant-School system, the CHRIST.OBSERV. No. 311.