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books; and the knowledge that the signatures of the writers would be applied to every account induced unusual care.
The mysteries of the ledger and cash-book were mastered at successive lessons; and now as every boy in the 1st class takes his turn in making the successive entries, a laudable anxiety is maintained to outdo each other in neatness and accuracy; and the greatest disgrace is felt at being precluded, as a punishment for slovenly or incorrect slate-work, from appearing among their fellows.
Our books are thus rapidly being filled with good penmanship, orderly entry, and useful calculations. The benefits which I have found result from the practice of this work are: 1. The true use of the various rules in common arithmetic is realised by the children, and the necessity for fractional calculations understood. 2. As real names are invariably used, a lively interest is excited in the arithmetical operations, and as a necessary consequence, greater and more solid progress is made. 3. Neatness and order in slate-work is secured, and the greatest efforts are made upon the paper entries. 4. The idea that each is contributing to a general work, the which will remain as permanent evidence of individual attainments, acts as a most wholesome stimulant. 5. The accounts being periodically balanced and entered in the bill form, make the children familiar with the proper method of producing a commercial account.
I will not suppose that any teacher worthy of the name cares for any additional trouble that may arise from adopting a really useful subject in his school; but in order to encourage a trial of what several influential clergymen have recognised as an interesting and successful matter, I may state, that it has added nothing to my labours, and being now entirely managed by my pupil-teachers, is thus serving a double purpose.-I am, &c. J. BRION.
SIR,-If you think the following method of giving home lessons, lately adopted in this mixed village school, worthy of your readers' notice, will you have the kindness to insert it in your Monthly Paper?
Each child in the first two classes is provided with a blank book, made from one or more sheets of foolscap paper folded to a convenient size. When a lesson has been given, and thoroughly understood by the children, the master writes on the black-board such leading notes of the lesson as will occupy the children for a quarter of an hour in copying into a book. This exercise forms a part of a writing lesson. About three of these lessons (for copying) are given in a day upon the most important subjects; one of them is to be committed to memory; the others to be studied in the evening at home, that the children may be able to repeat the former, answer any question upon the latter, and spell every word in all the lessons.
Thus they carry home a part of their daily labour, which they have an innocent pride in exhibiting to the parents.
These notes of lessons may be serviceable in many ways in the school; for instance, in writing from memory any lesson given perhaps a month ago; and if the children are allowed a few minutes to look over the notes, the lesson is quite fresh to their memories. These notes should be kept till the child leaves school, and then presented to him as a reward.-I am, &c. W. E. Z.
CORRESPONDENTS' ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES.
Wrawby, February 8, 1855.
SIR, The School-song I send you, in answer to "John Horsman's" inquiry, will suit the tune of "Nature's gay day" by repeating the two last lines. It is very much admired here.-Yours, &c. T. R. B.
I'VE been seeking fresh flowers, white, yellow, and blue;
I've twin'd a sweet garland, dear mother, for you;
But so bright is the sun, and so hot is the day,
Only look! my sweet garland is faded away:
You are smiling, dear mother; but I almost could cry,
To think pretty flowers should wither and die.
I smile, my dear child, for I know it is so,
Earth's joys, like her flowers, a little while last;
My darling must look for a heavenly home,
Mother's Love. Air-"Buy a Broom."
THE soldier returns with his honours all laden,
Forgets in the wearied the Pride of the School.
He sees a fair girl in yon ivy-clad dwelling,
He asks her for water his parched lips to cool,
Forgets in the way-worn the Pride of the School.
He leans on the church-gate; his mother is planting
A grave where a workman has laid by his tool;
She sees him-she meets him, all breathless and panting,
It knows not a change in the Pride of the School.
SIR,-In answer to "A Schoolmaster" who asks for "the best work on Book-keeping," I would beg to draw his attention to the best system of book-keeping which has yet come under my observation. It is the invention, I believe, of Mr. George James Kain, accountant, of 8 Brownlow Street, Holborn, who has published a small work upon it, intended for solicitors only, price 68. But the system, which is one of double entry upon the most simple plan, is applicable to every kind of business; and I have adopted it myself, and recommended its adoption in the three different businesses of a farmer, malster, and brick-maker; and in the two latter extended the system to a check and register of the stock in trade, with the addition of only a few figures to each entry in a proper column.
I can truly recommend the system to any person wishing for a correct and simple mode of bookkeeping. It will show at any moment, by merely deducting the sum of one column from that of another, in each case, how a man's cash account, and, if necessary, his book account, his profit-andloss account, and his debts and credits account (each) stand; or, in other words, how he stands with respect to himself, his business, and the world.
I have no interest whatever in calling attention to this system; but an earnest desire to make so useful an invention better known, and promote its adoption, and the most ready way of doing this is to have it taught in schools.-I am, &c. H. F. N.
SIR,-"Laicus Meneviensis" wishes to be informed of a method of heating schoolrooms otherwise than by stoves or fireplaces placed in the room? In answer to this inquiry, I would inform him that I have for some years had my school-room heated by the apparatus of the Messrs. Haden, of Trowbridge, Wilts. This method entirely obviates both difficulties. The door of the stove is level with the wall, and can be locked; and the aperture for admittance of warm air (which can be regulated at pleasure) is above the reach of any but a full-grown person. The fire is easily lit, and by no means expensive in fuel.
Messrs. Haden's plan of warming school-rooms, churches, and other public buildings, has been adopted very extensively in all parts of the kingdom.-I am, &c. CLERICUS.
Sheen Parsonage, Ashbourne. SIR,-To the authorities quoted by your correspondent " J. P. H." let me add the German geographer E. von Sydow, as claiming the Crimean peninsula for the European quarter of the world; and perhaps you will allow me to take this opportunity of recommending to school-managers, and especially to such as can read German, Von Sydow's beautiful Physical Maps. They are published at Gotha by Justus Perthes, but may be had of Messrs. Williams and Norgate. They are not only exceedingly cheap, but are remarkably plain and distinct; and-which is a great advantage to the teacher of an advanced class-they are purely physical maps, no names whatever being inserted, except a few of the most important cities in a very abbreviated form.-I am, &c. BENJAMIN WEBB.
SIR,-In answer to the inquiry of "J. P. H.," I beg to state that I do not happen to have met with any geographical work, ancient or modern, according to which the Crimea was not included in Europe. The continental boundary-line between Europe and Asia has been different at different periods of the
world's history; but I was not aware that any authority ever included the Crimea in Asia. In ancient times, and up to a comparatively modern date, this boundary-line ran from the top of the Sea of Asoph along the rivers Don, Volga, Kama, and the northern portion of the Ural Mountains. Since the extension of the Russian dominions in those regions, during the latter portion of the last century, many geographers have fixed the boundary-line between the two continents as follows: to the south of Europe, the Caucasian Mountains; to the east, the river Ural (which flows into the Caspian Sea) and the Ural Mountains. The provinces of Caucasia, Astrachan, and Orenburg, are thus considered as belonging to Europe. By ancient geographers this territory was included in Asia, under the name of Sarmatia Asiatica. But these different boundary-lines never, in my opinion, affected the Crimea, the ancient Chersonesus Taurica.-Yours, &c. T. R. B.
POPULAR HARMONISED BIBLE.
SIR,-In your February Number I see another inquiry about the work advertised under the title of the Popular Harmonised Bible. Messrs. Longman have lately advertised a work by Henry Molineux Wheeler, called, I think, a Popular Harmony of the Bible. Possibly the two works are identical, or by the same editor.
There was a Mr. H. M. Wheeler, in 1850, master of the Curzon School, May Fair, London; and afterwards master of a school at Debden, in Essex. Has your Correspondent inquired there?I am, &c. A CONSTANT READER.
[The book published by Messrs. Longman gives the Author's address as Ewhurst, Sussex.-ED.M.P.] "W. H. B.," in reply to "T. S. V.," says the little work on Drawing is published by Houlston and Stoneman, London. Butler Williams's Instructions in Drawing is the text-book published by J. W. Parker, West Strand, under the authority of the Committee of Council.
"W. H. B." also recommends to a "Schoolmaster" the Elements of Book-keeping, published by the Dublin National Society; and to "Beta" a System of Parsing by Jacob Lowres. Longman and Co.
"R. D. F." says "Hob" will find the New Coinage, by Tate (Longman and Co.), price 6d., just the thing; and Brewer's Guide to Science (Jarrold and Son), price 3s. 6d., is very good for "common things."
"J. L." says that "Hob" will find the Manual of Method, published by the National Society, a very useful book on School-management.
"H. O'D." informs "Quæsitor" that a translation of Grotius, by Clarke, may be obtained at Messrs. Bell and Daldy's, 186 Fleet Street, price 38. 6d. This is stated to be a more modern translation than those recommended by Lord Lyttelton.
"M. B." says "J. Horsman" will find several suitable Songs in the Collection published by the Home and Colonial School Society.
"G. J. K." wants a good Biographical Dictionary.
HOW TO DISPOSE OF OLD BIBLES.
SIR,-I should be rejoiced if any of your correspondents would kindly dispose of the following difficulty, which must have (more or less at various times) disturbed their moral equilibrium, viz. How to dispose of old Bibles, Testaments, and Prayer-books? The following difficulties have arisen to me: Should they be given to the children to take home to their parents? Would it be right to sell them for waste paper? Should they be stored up in the school cupboard? or should they be destroyed privately?
I think in solving this query the ultimatum should be kept in view, as to what will really become of them.-I remain, &c. E. W.
NOTICES OF BOOKS.
PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL SOCIETY.
The General Atlas. A series of 29 Coloured Maps, drawn and engraved by William Hughes, F.R.G.S.; with an Index. Size of Maps, 74 inches by 6. Price, cloth boards, 6s. Contents: The World in hemispheres-The Ancient World-Europe-British Isles-England and Wales-Scotland-IrelandFrance-Prussia-Austrian Empire-The smaller States of Germany, with Holland, Belgium, and Switzerland Sweden and Norway, with Denmark-European Russia-European Turkey, with Greece and the Ionian Islands-Italy-Spain and Portugal-Asia-Canaan-Palestine-Plan of JerusalemEnvirons of Jerusalem-India-Africa-North America-The British Colonies in North AmericaThe West Indies, and Central America-The United States-South America-Australasia.
BY LONGMAN AND CO.
A Popular Harmony of the Bible, Historically and Chronologically arranged, by H. M. Wheeler. 177 pages, 12mo, cloth boards, price 5s. Contents: Arrangement of the Old Testament-Arrangement and Harmony of the New Testament-The Apostolic Age-Quotations from Old Testament found in the New-Parallel passages of Chronicles, Kings, and Samuel-Arrangement of Prophecies-Herodian Family-Apocryphal Books-Jewish Calendar, Weights and Measures.
Self-proving Examples in the four first Rules of Arithmetic, Simple and Compound, by Alexander J. Ellis. 72 pages, 12mo, cloth boards, price 38. Contents: Definitions - Preliminary exercisesExamples for self-practice and for school use in the four first rules, simple and compound; also in square and cube root-Appendix for the use of teachers acquainted with elementary algebra.
BY VARTY AND Owen.
The Teacher's Hand-book to the Circle of Knowledge, by Charles Baker. 200 pages, 16mo, cloth boards, price ls. 6d., containing the lessons comprised in the Circle of Knowledge. Gradation I., by the same Author, together with explanations and questions on each lesson.
Books, &c. received.
The First Four Books of Milton's Paradise Lost, with Notes, Grammatical, Classical, and Critical, for the Use of Pupil-teachers and Training Colleges, by C. W. Connor, M. A. Longman and Co. A Catechism on Clubs, which to Join, which to Avoid, by the Rev. William Lea, Vicar of St. Peter's, Droitwich. J. H. Parker, 377 Strand.
Hints on teaching Decimals, by John Hargreaves, Certificated Master. Price 4d. Marlborough, London. The Sunday-Scholar's Companion. Price One Penny. Church-of-England Sunday-School Institute. The Railway, a Sign of the Times. Price 4d. James Nisbet and Co.
Schoolmasters' and Schoolmistresses' Associations.
BANBURY DEANERY CLERGY AND SCHOOLMASTERS' ASSOCIATION.-This Association owes its existence to a friendly meeting of the clergy and schoolmasters of the Deanery, assembled at Swalcliffe on the 13th June, 1854, by the kind invitation of the Rev. E. Payne, Vicar and Rural Dean. It has gradually developed itself, and is now established on a permanent footing, with regular officers, subscriptions, and rules. The meetings are held quarterly in the various parishes of the Deanery. The proceedings commence with morning prayer and the holy communion in the church, after which the members adjourn to the parsonage; and the necessary business of the Association having been first transacted, a paper is usually read by one of the clergy; the subject of which is then freely discussed, and enriched by the suggestions and varied experience of those present. After partaking of a plain dinner, provided by the clergyman who is host for the day, another paper is furnished by one of the schoolmasters; the observations on which, together with any general topics of educational interest, form the remainder of the proceedings.
The Association consists of a president, the Rev. E. Payne, Rural Dean; a secretary, the Rev. H. D. Harrington; and a treasurer, Mr. Haycock,-the other members being all clergymen and schoolmasters in the Deanery who are disposed to join the Association on payment of an annual subscription of five shillings, paid half-yearly in advance. The subscriptions are expended in the purchase and circulation of standard works on education, which are ordered, issued, or returned at the several meetings. The books not in circulation are collected together at Banbury for the convenience of members wishing to refer to them.
Schoolmistresses, who, for various reasons, cannot be included in the meetings of the Society, are yet admitted to the full use of the library on payment of a subscription of half-a-crown yearly.
The offertory at the holy communion is invested by the president in the Banbury Savings Bank, in trust for benevolent purposes determined on by the members of the Association at their general meetings. A considerable portion of this fund has been already devoted to the relief of a former Sunday-school teacher at Adderbury, now disabled by paralysis; and an aged person residing at Neithrop, who for many years was mistress of the Banbury Girls' National School.
At the second meeting of the Association, held at the house of the Rev. W. S. Sanders, Curate of Adderbury, papers were read by the Rev. J. Murray, one of the Diocesan Inspectors, on "The importance of exciting a spirit of reverence in the minds of children;" and by Mr. Haycock, schoolmaster of Bloxham, on "The best method of carrying out the monitorial system with the least disadvantage to the monitors."
The third meeting assembled at the Vicarage, Banbury, when the Rev. H. D. Harrington, Vicar of South Newington, read a paper on "Evening-schools;" and Mr. Waring, schoolmaster of Adderbury, another on "The best course of lessons for Sunday, to be prepared beforehand by the children." The salutary influence of this Association in stimulating the work of education, and diffusing a spirit of harmonious co-operation among the clergy and schoolmasters of the Deanery, is already felt and acknowledged.
[The attention of Schoolmasters' Associations is called to the plan which this Association has adopted for relieving distressed school-teachers.-ED. M. P.]
METROPOLITAN CHURCH SCHOOLMASTERS' ASSOCIATION.-The annual festival of the Association of the Metropolitan Church Schoolmasters was celebrated on Saturday evening at the Freemasons' Tavern. Lord Ashburton had intended to preside on the occasion; but his Lordship being confined to his room by a sudden and severe attack of gout, the Rev. W. H. Brookfield, one of her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools, was requested to take the chair. This gentleman was a most efficient and welcome substitute for Lord Ashburton (whose absence was deeply deplored); and his eloquent and pertinent speeches from the chair were seasoned with a dry humour which excited continual explosions of mirth on the part of all his auditors.
Mr. Brookfield was supported by Mr. R. R. W. Lingen, the Secretary of the Committee of Council on Education; Rev. J. D. Glennie, jun., Secretary of the London Diocesan Board of Education; Rev. R. Burgess, Prebendary of St. Paul's; Rev. F. Huntly Green, Chaplain to the Bishop of London; Rev. T. Jackson; Rev. F. C. Cooke, Inspector of Schools; Professor Hofman, &c. &c. The usual loyal and constitutional toasts having been drunk, including the "Army and Navy" (which the Rev. Chairman took occasion to interpolate), the Sixteenth Annual Report of the Association was read by Mr. Boulden, the secretary.
It shows that the finances are in a very satisfactory state, and that the great object of the Association, the furtherance of education by the mutual improvement of Church schoolmasters, continues to be carried out most successfully.
The lectures delivered by the Rev. Canon Moseley on "Faith in the Work of the Teacher," and the Rev. J. P. Norris on "The Teacher's Difficulties," were especially commended, and we are informed that they have been extensively circulated among the elementary teachers throughout the country. The report also refers to a recent memorial to the Committee of Council on Education, urging the expediency of giving honorary certificates to the most deserving of the older schoolmasters who are unable to pass the "rigid examination" required for the certificate. This point was much dwelt upon by the various speakers among the schoolmasters; but Mr. Lingen, who proposed "Prosperity to the Association," explained that the Committee of Council on Education was bound by special rules to apply the test of an examination to all candidates for certificates without exception.
Several excellent speeches were then delivered by the Rev. T. Jackson, the Rev. Inspector Cooke, and other reverend gentlemen. Mr. Cooke bore witness to the harmony subsisting between the clergy and the Church schoolmasters, and both the inspectors present expatiated in very flattering terms on the general efficiency of the masters. The Rev. Mr. Burgess proposed "The health of Lord Ashburton," and dwelt on his Lordship's promotion of the teaching of “common things," and the great value of such
knowledge as enabling children to do their duty in the various situations of life. The rev. chairman also, in returning thanks for his own health (which was drunk with enthusiasm), said that Lord Ashburton took the deepest interest in the Association and its laudable objects, and would have felt highly honoured if the state of his health had allowed him to meet so respectable a body of men, and such useful members of society, as the Church Schoolmasters. The party broke up about ten o'clock.— The Times.
THE WINCHESTER ASSOCIATION.-The first Report of this Association has been printed. On the 17th of February, 1854, the Association was received into union with the Hampshire Church School Society, still retaining its own independent action. How far the Association has answered the ends for which it was formed, may be gathered partly from the following facts. It has numbered twenty-two members, viz. fourteen masters, seven mistresses, and one pupil-teacher. There have been twenty meetings of members; one for business connected with the organisation of the Association, eighteen for the reading and discussion of papers on topics connected with education, and one for the delivery and discussion of a lesson to a class of children. The following is a list of the papers:-"The objects of education;" "Teaching to read;" " Discipline:" "The choice of pupil-teachers;" "The training of pupil-teachers;" "Religious instruction;""Self-supporting schools;" "What we can teach in elementary schools, and the best ways of teaching it;""The progress of man as a race and as an individual;""On the cultivation of taste in children;""History and progress of astronomy;" "The circulation of the blood" (lesson); "Rewards and punishments;" "Distribution of rain;""Climate;" "Teaching to read;" "Causes of England's commercial greatness;" "Edict of Nantes;" "Education." The largest attendance at the fortnightly meetings has been fifteen, the least six, and the average 10-75. A small library has been formed by donations of books from the patron, the vice-patrons, and some of the members. A drawing-class has also been formed. The Association engaged Mr. John Colson, architect, to conduct it for the first quarter; since which it has been transferred to Mr. W. Whiting, whose services are gratuitous. The funds of the Association are in a satisfactory state.
LEICESTER AND RUTLAND ASSOCIATION.-The first Report of this Association states that twenty schoolmasters had become members; but owing to the removal of seven to other counties, the number was now thirteen, in addition to fourteen honorary members. Papers have been read on "The advantages and disadvantages of mixed schools;" on "English history;" on "The management of an elementary school." The Association assists in paying the travelling expenses of its members: and its finances, owing to the liberality of the honorary members, are in a satisfactory state.
NORTH WILTS ASSOCIATION.-The second diocesan meeting of this Association was held on Saturday, January 27th, 1855, in St. Peter's School, Marlborough. The Rev. T. N. Dowding took the chair. Mr. William Chate, secretary, read the proceedings of the past year, and the officers were reelected for the ensuing one. A very interesting and instructive paper on the study of" Early Church history" was then read by the Rev. T. L. Kingsbury; after which he presented the Association with two excellent works on Ecclesiastical History.
The first meeting of this Association was held at Marlborough, November 5th, 1853, and since that time the following papers have been read and discussed: "On order," by Mr. N. Chate; "On the theory and practice of teaching," by Mr. Pitt; "Hints on the organisation of a village school," by Mr. Jones; "On teaching arithmetic," by Mr. Brooks; "On the moral influence of the schoolmaster's example," by Rev. J. L. Popham; (this being the first diocesan meeting, June 17th, 1854, the rules of the Association were laid down, and officers elected); "On teaching geography to juvenile classes," by Mr. Philip Webb; "On early English history," by Mr. N. Chate; "On linear drawing as an aid to the schoolmaster," by Mr. New; and "On writing," by Mr. Carpenter.
THE NEW EDUCATION BILL.-Lord John Russell's new Bill "To promote education in England" has been read a first time, and printed by order of the House of Commons. It contains twenty-two clauses, of which the following is a brief abstract: "The councils of English boroughs are empowered to submit schemes for the promotion of education in such boroughs (by means either of new or existing schools) to the Education Committee of the Privy Council, with an estimate of the expense thereof. Two-thirds of the members of such councils must be present at the meeting to be specially summoned for the purpose fourteen days previously. If the scheme be approved by the Education Committee, it may be carried into effect, with or without alterations. The expenses are to be defrayed out of the borough funds, the rate not to exceed 6d. in the pound annually. The Act may also be adopted by parishes situate without boroughs, if two-thirds of the ratepayers vote at a public meeting in favour of such adoption. If the scheme be rejected by the ratepayers, it may not be again proposed for the space of three years. Where parishes adopt the Act, the scheme may be submitted for approval to the Education Committee in the same way as by the councils of boroughs; the expenses to be defrayed from the poor-rates. In all schools established under this Act the Holy Scriptures are required "to be read therein," but not so as to be used as a "school lesson-book;" and no Roman Catholic or Jewish children will be obliged to be present at the reading of the Holy Scriptures. Another clause provides that the children of Dissenting, Roman Catholic, and Jewish parents shall not be taught any catechism, nor required to use any liturgy, nor obliged to attend at church or other religious observances. The management of schools is to be vested in the councils of boroughs and the vestries of parishes, subject to Government inspection, and the rights of trustees or visitors. The Education Committee may at any time revoke any order approving any scheme under this Act, and so shut up the school disapproved. The Committee must at the same time state its reasons for so doing.-The Times.
TESTIMONIALS.-To Mr. COOMBES, on leaving Southampton, several Volumes of Books, from the Clergy, Teachers, and Children.
To Mr. JOHN BIRD, a Silver Pencil-Case and Prayer-Book, by the Pupil-Teachers and Scholars of St. Mary's National School, Newtown, Leeds.
To Mr. BLAND, a Black Marble Inkstand, by the Inhabitants of Little Eaton, for six years schoolmaster at that place.
To Mr. TENNANT, a Church Service, by two of his Pupils, at Wigton.
To Miss STOTHARD, Volumes of Poems and a Church Service, on leaving Carmarthen.
To Mr. T. W. JONES, a Writing Desk, &c., on leaving Winchester.