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74
OBITUARY.-H. R. H. the Duke of York.

(Jan the field. On the 26th of August, the ment and consolidation of her vast mivessels, conveying a large British force, litary resources, a foul attempt was made came to anchor near the shore of the to deprive his country of the services of Helder; and on the 27th the troops the illustrious Commander-in-chief. On began to disembark. The first enter- the 27th of January, 1809, Gwyllym prise was the taking of the Helder. His Lloyd Wardle, esq. commonly called CoRoyal Highness himself landed in Hol- lonel Wardle, brought forward a motion land on the 13th September, and the in the House of Commons, for the apforce under him, including 1000 Rus- pointment of a Committee to investigate sians, amounted to nearly 35,000 men. the conduct of his Royal Highness the An engagement with the French took Duke of York, the Commander-in.cbief, place on the 19th September, which, with regard to promotions, exchanges, owing, it is said, to the misconduct of and appointments to commissions in the the Russians, was unfavourable to the army, and in raising levies for the army. Duke. On the 8d of October another We will not review the progress of the action took place. The right wing of investigation, for all its important feathe British was commanded by Sir Ralph tures were duly recorded at the time in Abercrombie, the centre division by Ge- our pages, and have recently been but neral Dundas, and the left wing by too often repeated. Major-general Burrard. The enemy was On this painful occasion the Duke of entirely defeated. In this engagement

York behaved with the greatest magna. the loss of the enemy exceeded 4,000 nimity, and, though acquitted by a mamen and 300 prisoners, and the British jority of 278 to 196, finding that the lost about 1,500 men. In another en- efforts of some individuals had succeeded gagement, which followed soon after, in raising a prejudice against him in the the British were again masters of the public mind, his Royal Highness waited field of battle, though the loss amounted upon the King, and tendered his resigto 1200 British and 700 Russians. The nation on the 18th of March, 1809. army directed its march towards Haer. In the discussions on the appointment lem; but intelligence having been re- of the Regency of 1810, the Duke again ceived that the French had succeeded in joined to advance the interests of his throwing up strong works in the rear of elder Brother. The substance of his our army, and that a corps would be speech on this occasion, Dec. 27, is placed in our rear as we advanced, his recorded in vol. Lxxx. ii. 654. Royal Highness was forced to pause. One of the first acts of his present MaGeneral Daendels having attacked the jesty, after bis being vested with the full right wing of the British on the 10th of powers of Regent, in 1811, was to reinOctober, under Prince William of Glou- state his Royal Highness in his former cester, he was under the necessity of office. Lord Milton brougbt this re-apfalling back. On the 17th of October a pointment before the House of Comsuspension of arms was agreed on be- mons, and concluded with , moving, tween Generals Brun and Daendels and “That it has been highly improper and the English and Russian commanders, indecorous in the advisers of the Prince and it was agreed on that the English Regent to have recommended to his and Russians should be allowed to eva- Royal Highness the re-appointment of cuate Holland, on condition that 8000 the Duke of York to the office of Comseamen, either Batavian or French, pri- mander-in-chief." The more violent soners in England, should be given up members of the opposition remained obto the French government.

stinate in their error; but a new light Upon bis return to England, the Duke bad broken in on the House in general. of York again directed bis time and When a division took place, there were attention to the amelioration of the mi- only 47 for the motion, and 296 against litary system; each successive year af- it. forded fresh proofs of the benefits arising Since tbat time the Duke pursued the from bis unabated exertions, and it must even tenor of his way, devoting himself be admitted, that owing to these, and to business with the greatest regularity. the many wise regulations established Every arrangement, the most minute, by his Royal Highness, the British army, was submitted by the heads of departat this moment, offers a model of per- ments, for his sanction ; tbe memorial fection to every military nation,

of every officer, the petition of every From the proud feeling inspired by soldier, engaged his personal attention, these reflections, we turn with regret to nor were any suffered to pass unnoticed. notice that, in the midst of the cares Tuesdays and Fridays during the attendant upon his official duties, and Session of Parliament, and at other while exerting himself to increase the periods Tuesdays only, were the days on glory of Great Britain, by the improve which his Royal Highness gave audiences

1827.] OBITUARY.-H. R. H. the Duke of York.

75 to officers of every rank, who wished to Highness underwent an operation on the approach him on business. From the 3d of September. The result of this frequency of these levees, and the indis- operation, aided by the favourable efcriminate admission, there were few, if fécts of inedicine afterwards, was the any, officers of the army, who were not removal of the constitutional complaint; personally known to his Royal Highness; but its partial influence on the limbs, and, although compliance with the re- producing a mortification of a considerquests of all was impossible, the refusal able poriion of the shin of both legs, was always softened by the kind manner subsequently brought bis Royal Highin wbicb it was conveyed.

ness's valuable life into danger; and In July, 1814, and again at the same although this was checked, and hung in period in the following year, both suspense for a time, the powers of bis Houses of Parliament passed a vote of fraie sunk ultimately in the struggle. thanks to the Duke of York, for the His Royal Highness was informed benefits he had bestowed on the pation early, that his situation was not free as Commander-in-chief in the wars then from peril; yet be bore his protracted concluded (see vol. Lxxxiv. ii. 265 ; illness with a stoutness of heart, an Lxxxv. ii. 165).

evenness of temper, and a pious resignaIn August, *1815, bis Royal Highness tion, wbich were very remarkable; and, accidentally broke bis left arm (vide ibid. as his mind was not affected by bis p. 176), and in April, 1819, experienced disease, he continued to perform all the a similar misfortune with his right arm duties of bis high office of Commander(see vol. Lxxxix. i. 366); but on neither in-chief with his usual punctuality and occasion was it more than a temporary quickness. Indeed, among the last acts inconvenience.

of his official life was that arrangement After the death of Queen Charlotte in for the benefit of the old Lieutenants 1818, the Duke of York was appointed, who cannot afford to purchase, which with a Parliamentary grant of 10,0001. bad for some time engaged bis attention, per annum, Custos of the person of his and which was laid before the King, by afflicted Father. The affectionate assi- bis express desire, for his Majesty's ap-: duity with which be performed this duty probation, the day before he took leave, is universally acknowledged. It was re- as it were, of worldly affairs, and repeatedly and triumpbantly boasted by ceived the Sacrament from the Bishop ihe Ministry, that, if his Majesty could, of London. by the favour of Providence, have been The same unclouded state of his in-' enabled to exercise any influence in the tellects admitted of his reading the selection of a person to watch over his newspapers constantly, and of feeling declining years, on none would bis interested in all that was going on; su choice have failen more promptly than that, as bis malady advanced, bad the upon the Duke of York. In the fears of bis medical attendants been exarms of bis Royal son and guardian the pressed in daily bulletins of his health, Monarch breathed his last.

as in truth they must have been, this In Feb. 1820, the Duke accepted the intelligence would bave recoiled upon freedom of the Drapers' Company; and him with a fatal force, by destroying the speech addressed to him in their those sanguine hopes of recovery which name, on this occasion, is printed in contributed so essentially to the etforts vol. xc. i. pp. 128-130.

of art to do him good; and would have On passing through Norwich, Dec. 2 precipitated the sad event which we all that year, bis Royal Highness, together now deplore. It is this consideration with the Duke of Wellington, was pre- alone that explains and justifies the sented with the freedom of that city, silence of the physicians to the subject

The last prominent act of the Duke of the Royal Duke's health; a regular of York's life, and that which had lat-, statement of which would bave been terly much promoted his popularity, was fairly demanded, under other circumhis manly defence of the Protestant con

stances, by the zealous and affectionate stitution of the country, delivered in the attachment of a loyal people to the House of Lords, April 25, 1825. That Presumptive Heir of the Throne. noble declaration of his well-deliberated Throughout his long illness, notwithopinion is recorded in our vol. xcv. i. standing the serious nature of his disease, 453. It has since been reprinted with the severe sufferings be underwent, and every mode of embellishment,—as a dis- the rapid wasting away of his person, play of ornamental penmanship, and in be did not appear to expect that bis jetters of gold.

illness would terminate fatally, until His Royal Higbness had laboured un- the morning of the day on wbich he der a dropsy since the month of July died. He did not even relinquish bis last, for the relief of which his Royal habits of business until a very few days

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76
OBITUARY.-H. R. H. the Duke of York.

[Jan. before his death, but continued to re- it is said, at his similarity to the late ceive the official report of his Secre- King in his last moments. It was at taries, as punctually as when he at- the earnest request of his medical adtended at his office in the Horse Guards; visers that his Majesty discontinued bis and all his remarks showed that be fully visits to Rutland House, wbich had preexpected to recover. But early on the viously been frequent. From that time morning of that day which was to ter- messengers were twice every day disminate his existence in this world, be patched to Windsor, to acquaint his May beckoned bis immediate attendants (Sir jesty of the state of the Royal sufferer. Herbert Taylor and Col. Stevenson, we His Royal Highness the Duke of Susbelieve), to the side of his chair, and sex arrived at Rutland House as early as faintly said, “ Now I know that I am nine o'clock on the fatal morning, and dying!” These were bis last words. the Duke of Clarence at twelve o'clock.

It was, however, very evident that he They were with the deceased till within retained his memory many bours after. an hour of his death. The Duke of wards; for when his royal brothers, the Clarence then withdrew; the Duke of Dukes of Clarence and Sussex, entered Sussex remained in the anti-room till bis bis apartment, he showed that he was Brother was no more. conscious of their presence; and when His Royal Highness, who had only the hour arrived at which he had been been able occasionally to recognize his accustomed to receive some surgical attendants, became totally insensible attentions, he pointed to the clock, to about one o'clock. In the course of the remind those about him that it was time afternoon he once or twice so far rethat duty was performed; it was per. covered as to appear sensible of external formed immediately of course; and then objects, but immediately relapsed into be gradually sank' into a state of total his former state of stupor. His Royal insensibility, and so continued until he Highness continued in the same state. expired.

during the evening, with scarcely any His Royal Highness's very active ha- change. The narcotics administered probits, his early rising, and bis strict at- duced occasional repose, but soon after tention to the business of his office, have nine o'clock the approach of death wag long been generally known ; but when manifest. At 20 minutes after, his resthe public, judging from those habits, piration baving scarcely been perceptible and his robust appearance, supposed him for some time, he breathed his last witbto be in the enjoyment of perfect health, out a struggle. The room in Rutlandhe was suffering much pain, and was house, in wbich bis Royal Higbness exevery moment in danger of sudden dis- pired, is on the ground floor, looking solution. For more than four years his into the Green Park. He had not been Royal Highness had been labouring un out of that room, and the one adjoining, der a spasmodic affection of such a for nearly eight months. The Duke nature, that he could not lie down, but had one easy chair during the day, and at the imminent risk of his life; and another for the night. They were both from the commencement of that attack, made suitable for ease in any position four years ago, he never retired to rest bis Royal Highness might recline in. without a supply of anti-spasmodic me. He expired in one of them. dicines by his bed-side, so placed as to Immediately after the death of his be at hand on the instant. Latterly, Royal Highness, Sir Henry Halford and for many months before his last con- Sir H. Taylor left Arlington-street for finement, his Royal Highness never ent- the Royal Lodge at Windsor, wbere tered a bed, but slept in an easy chair. they communicated the melancholy in

The disease which proved fatal to his telligence to his Majesty, who was, as Royal Highness, it is now well ascer- usual, (since the precarious state of his tained, was that species of dropsy wbich Royal brother,) anxiously waiting the is technically called ascites.

arrival of a messenger, who in general The King's last visit to his dying arrived about one o'clock every mornBrother was on Friday, Dec. 29, just a ing. His Majesty, notwithstanding the week before his death. His Majesty suffering his feelings have undergone, took with him some particular soup, of enjoys tolerably good health. which he recollected the Duke to have On Saturday morning the workmen formerly partaken with pleasure ; the employed on the King's new Palaee, in King, in bis anxiety, personally handed St. James's Park, the mansion erecting some of it to his Royal Brother, who ap- for the late lamented Duke, and the one peared to be sensible of the attention, opposite for the Duke and Duchess of and slightly tasted of the once favourite Clarence, were suspended, and all the soup. His Majesty was seriously affected works stopped. At an early hour Mr. by the Duke's altered appearance, and, Mash left the Lord Chamberlain's office,

et

1897.)
OBITUARY.-H.R. H. the Duke of York.

77 and proceeded to Windsor to take bis up at the top as to resemble a tent, in Majesty's commands respecting the fu- allusion to the military character of the neral. On Sunday a funeral sermon was departed Duke. The sides of the room preached at the Chapel Royal.

were covered with black cloth Auted The coffin for the Royal remains was horizontally, ornamented with batch. carried to Rutland House late on Wed- ments and silver sconces. nesday evening, and soon after twelve The coffin stood on a platform under a'clock they were conveyed in a hearse a state canopy; and over it was thrown to the King's Palace, St. James's, fol- a pall of black velvet, with three escut. lowed by a mourning coach, in wbich cheons on each side. At the head of Fere Sir Herbert Taylor, Col. Stevenson, the coffin, on a velvet cushion, was and the King's Sergeant-surgeon. The placed the Coronet ; below, on another King's guard, under the command of cushion, the Duke's Baton as FieldCol. Macdonald, were drawn out to re- marsbal. Three large wax candles burned ceive the Royal corpse, which was after- on each side. On the coffin-plate is the wards conveyed into the state room following inscriptions, issued froin the assigned for the lying in state. This Heralds' College : took place on tbe two next days. On

Depositum Thursday the privilege of entrance

Illustrissimi Principis througb the Stable-yard, by tickets,

FREDERICI, lasted till 11, when the public admission de Brunswick Lunenburg, took place through tbe second front Ducis EBORACI ET ALBANIR, gate of the Palace. When the crowd

Comitis Vitoniæ, had passed along a covered way across Nobilissimi Ordinis Periscelidis, the yard, they entered through the new staircase, sbich leads to the state apart- Honoratiss. Ordin. Militar, de Balneo ments. This was bung with black cloth,

Equitis, and the landing places were railed off, Fratris augustissimi et potentissimi so as to break the force of the crowd,

Monarchæ, and prevent any unseemly rush in the

GEORGII QUARTI, approach to the grand suite of rooms. Dei Gratia Britanniarım Regis, At eight o'clock a Captain's full-dress

Fidei Defensoris, guard from the grenadier-guards, with a

Regis Hanoveræ, &c. colour, mounted as a guard of honour. Obiit quinto die Januarii, At the same hour a Captain's guard Anno Domini MDCCCXXVII., from the 17th Lancers also mounted.

ætatis suæ LXIV. A strong detachment of police had al- A few minutes before ten o'clock, Geready been in attendance, and were dis- neral Upton took his station at the bead tributed around the barriers, and in of the coffin, Colonel Sir Henry Cook considerable force at the first entrance. on the right side, and Colonel Armstrong The police were assisted by a large re- on the left side; these officers were atinforcement of constables, under Mr. tached to his late Royal Highness's staff, Lee, the High-constable. The Lancers and appeared in Court inuurning. la were to do duty outside, and the Grena- the front were J. Hawker, esq. Richmond dier Guards marcbed inside, and were Herald,and C.G. Young, esq. York Herald. disposed at various entrances, and along On each side were three Gentlemen-atthe internal passages about the Palace. arms, holding banners, viz. of Albany, The Yeomen of the Guard had also White Horse of Hanover, Falcon and assembled within tbe Palace, and about Fetter-lock, Whit Rose, the Crest of an hour before the time of public ad- the late Duke ; and one of the Arms of mission, took their stations in files, 24 in bis Royal Highness. There were also the new gallery, and 12 in the armoury- two Gentlemen-ushers, and two Genroom; with a yeoman-usber to each tlemen of the Privy-chamber. On each party. They were dressed as usual, side of the platform were six grenadiers, with the addition of black stockings, with their muskets reversed, leaning on and black crape round their hats and the butt end. The whole produced as partisans. The honourable corps of Gen- solemn and imposing an effect as can be ilemen at Arms (who are, in fact, bis easily imagined. Mr. Harding, an emiMajesty's body guard,) also gave their nent artist in lithography, was employed attendance, though unusual, except at by autbority in making a drawing of the funeral of the King or Queen. A the scene, from which a print has been gentleman in deep mourning was sta- published by Mr. Ackermann. tioned in each room, to keep the public The first person who entered with a moving.

ticket was the venerable Lord Stowel. The state room, in which the corpse Those who passed by the solemn spec. *25 placed, had its black cloth so fitied tacle moved as in a procession. The

78

OBITUARY.-H. R. H. the Duke of York. [Jan. strictest silence prevailed througbout. very great, and the newspapers bave -At twelve o'clock, those in attend. been filled with vague reports of several ance on the corpse were relieved, and accidents; we have not, however, found this was repeated every two hours. It that any lives were lost. The second day. was supposed, from a general calcula- was less riotous than the first. tion, that about 20,000 persons bad en- At seven o'clock on the 20th Jan.' tered the Palace in the course of the day, the morning of the funeral, a detach

We shall nut stop to detail the ex- ment of the 2d Life-guards entered the treme multitude and pressure of the Court-yard of the Palace ; and at eight, crowd outside, which probably equalled precisely, the procession moved in ibe or exceeded that on any former occa- following order, agreeably to the official sion. The destruction of apparel was programme:

THE PROCESSION. Trumpets and Kettle-drums of the two Regiments of Lise-guards, and the Drums

and Fifes of the Foot-guards.

Knight-marshal's-men on foot, with black staves. Two Mourning Coaches, drawn by four horses, conveying the Servants and Pages

his late Royal Highness. Five Mourning Coaches, drawn by six horses, conveying : the medical attendants

and Private Chaplain ; the Secretaries; the Aides-de-camp; the Equerries of his late Royal Highness, and the Assistants to the Adjutant and Quarter-mastergenerals; the Adjutant-general, the Quartermaster-general, and their two

Deputies. The State Carriage of bis late Royal Highness, drawn by six horses, conveying

Norroy King at Arms (acting for Clarencieux), with the Coronet of his late
Royal Highness, supported by two Gentlemen-ushers of the Privy.chamber.

Escort of Life guards.
Ten of the
THE HEARSE,

Ten of the Yeomen of adorned on each side with a long escutcheon of his Yeomen of the Guard, late Royal Highness's Arms, and with one of tbe Guard, with the Crest at the end, and drawn by

with partisans of bis Majesty's black Hanoverian

partisans reversed. horses, driven by his Ma

reversed. jesty's Body-coachman.

Escort of Life-guards. A Mourning Coach, drawn by six horses, conveying Garter King at Arms, and

two Gentlemen-assistants. Another, with the two Executors, Sir H. Taylor and Col. Stephenson. Carriage of his Majesty, drawn by six horses, the Coachman and Footmen in deep

mourning, with scarfs and bat bands.

Carriage of bis Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence. Carriages of the Duke of Sussex, Princess Augusta, Duchess of Kent, Duke of

Gloucester, Princess Sophia, and Prince Leopold, each drawn by six horses. A body of Life-guards flanked the Royal Family, in deep mourning, who procession, and the Lancers, who had were stationed four abreast, the two on previously been stationed as piquets, the sides bearing flambeaux in their attended as far as Kensington. The hands. With this addition in front, the military, with arms reversed, moved procession moved on slowly into Windalong three abreast at a walking pace, sor, keeping the centre between two and constables kept the way clear on lines of cavalry. each side. The whole scene, when On Friday, the 19th, a large porviewed from the upper end of St. James's- tion of the troops who were to attend street, served to present to the mind all the ceremony, bad arrived at Windsor. that is associated with solemn splendour. Another division was stationed at dif

At Cranford Bridge, where the pro- ferent parts of the road by which the cession was appointed to rest, it arrived funeral was to approach. The whole between one and two o'clock. It lest consisted of 200 men of the first battathat place at four, and at five o'clock lion of tbe Coldstream regiment, of a torches were lighted. At eight it arrived large detachment from the second and at Frogmore, and halted for ten minutes, third battalions of the Grenadier Guards, to receive their Royal Higbnesses the and another detachment from the Third Dukes of Clarence, Sussex, and Glou- Guards. The greater part of this body cester, and about eighty of the servants came to Windsor, and joined the 67th and grooms of his Majesty and of the Foot, which was already in the barracks.

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