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COC

(Corpóris)}

{

crom

ev

}

elce
an

words found in English exist almost exclusively in combination. Latin Words. Meanings.

Stems.

English Words. The combinations in which they appear vary in kind. The com

Clino
I bend, lie

clin

clinical, recline. bination may consist of one word and a suffix, or one word and Clivus

a slope

clio

declivity, acckrity. a prefix; or, again, of two words with or without terminating

Coelum
heaven

cel

celestial. forms. The combinations require certain changes. The changes Comes (comitis) a companion

Colo
Icultivate, inhabit col

colony.

comit are effected by dropping or altering the Latin termination, or by

concomitant. Copia

plenty the substitution of one vowel for another, as i for a, e for a,

copi

copious.
etc.
Coquo
I cook

00(0)k, to cocker.
Coctus
cooked

coct LATIN STEMS.

decection. Cor(cordis) the heart

cord

cordial, concord. Latin Words. Meanings.

Stems.
English Words.

Cornu
a horn

coin

unicorn, cornet. Acer (acris) sharp

acri
acrimony.
Corpus }

corpus, corpu, corpuscle, corpulent, Ædes a house edi

the body edifice.

corpor

incorporate. Facio I make

fi, fy
ratification, edify.

Cras
to-morrono

cras

procrastinate. Æquus equal

equa, equi equanimity, equilibrium. Animus mind

Credo

cree) d.credulous,cel. anim

I beliove, trust animosity.

cred

ible, credit. Libra a pound or balance libr

libration, equilibrium. Cremo

1 I burn

cremation,
Aer
air

aeri
aerial, aeriform.
Crux (crucis) across

cruc

crucify.
Ævum
an age

cocral.
Cubo

cub

incubation. Azer (agri) a field

Ilie
agri
agriculture.
(cumbo)

cumb

incumbent. Cultura cultivation

cultur
culture.

Culp
a fault

culp

culpable, culprit. Agger a herp

agger
exaggerate.

Cura
care, cure

cura, cur !curator, sidecure. Ago

agent, agency.

Jag
I do, act

{act
actor, active.

The meaning of many of the words given as examples the Ala a aring

ali
aliped.

student will either know already or may deduce from the Pes (pedis) a foot

ped
pedestrian.

etymology. In other cases some additional aid may be required. Altus high

alt
altitude, exalt.

That aid I shall supply in quotations and in such remarks as Amicus a frimd

amic, imic amicable, inimical. the several topics may seem to require. Amo I lore

ami,amor,amat amiable, amorous,amatory. Anina life, the soul anim ,

animate.

“ Those milks (in certain plants) have all an acrimony, though one Verto I turn

tert
animadrort.

would think they should be lenitive.”- Bacon, “Natural History.” Ad to

ad
adequate.

“ Most satirists are indeed a public scourge,
Aunus
a year
ann, annu, enni annals, annual, biennial.

Their mildest physic is a farrier's purge,
Bis
turice

bi
biped.

Their acrid temper turns, as soon as stirred,
Aque water
aqua, apie aquatic, aqueduct.

The milk of their good purpose all to curd.”—Couper. Ductus a leading

doct

conduct. Arceo I keep ojj

Acer is properly that which is sharp, as the point of a spear,

coerce. Aro I plought

arable.

or the edge of a sword, that which pricks or cuts; whereas Ars (artis) art

art, ert

artificer, artist, inert. acerbus (acerbity) denotos that which is bitter to the taste. Artus a joint

witi
articulation.

According to its derivation, edification is house-building. The Asper rough

asper

asperity, exasperete. spiritual house is intended, the metaphor being borrowed from Audio I licar audi, audit audience, auditor.

the diction of the New Testament. Consult 1 Cor. iii. 9; xiv. 3; Angeo I increase

aug
augment.

Ephes. ii. 21 ; iv. 12, 16.
Auctio an increasing auct

auction. Auctor an originator auti

author.

"So that it is by the equilibre of the muscles, by the aid of a con. Avis

ari
ariary.

siderable and equipollent (equally powerful) muscular force in constart Destis bland

beati
beatitude.

exertion, that the head maintains its erect posture.”- Paley, Naturs! Bellum

belli, bol
belligerent, rebel.

History."
Gero I carry on

ger, cest
belligerent, gesture.

“Government has coercion (restraint) and animadversion upon suci Re back, in opposition

ropel, repulse.

as neglect their duty."-South. Bellus beautiful

bell
einbellish, beile,

Articulation is properly the making of articles, that is, sma"! Bene urell

10

benediction. Dictio c saying

dictio
malediction.

limbs or joints; hence dividing a flow of sound so as to produce Bibo I drink

vil
wine-bibber, imbibe.

separate and distinct sounds, that is, letters and syllables. This Bini tvo, cicle

bin

combination, binary. power belongs only to man. Accordingly, Milton, that great Brevis chort

breg

brevity, abbreriate. master of distinctive and descriptive epithets, gives as the Cado I fill

cad, cia

cadaverous, accident. characteristics of the human race that they articulate. (agus a fall

cas

casual. Cado

“ The first of these, at least, I thought denied I cut

cid

homicide. Ciesus cut

cis
incision, precision.

To beast, whom God on their creation-day
Calor heat

Created mute to all articulato sound." calor

caloric. Candeo I burn

Milton, “Paradise Lost." incense, incendiary. Candesco I begin to brine

“ The former (fore) legs of this animal (the elephant) appear, whea candesc incandescence. Canis

he standeth, like pillars of flesh without any evidence of articulation."4 adlog

canine. Cano, canto I sing

Brown, "Vulgar Errors." cant, cent canticles, precentor.

“Pére Bougeant's third volume will give you the best idea of the Cipillus hair

capill

capillary. Caput ?

Treaty of Munster, and open to you several views of the belligerent and the lead

capit

capital. cipit precipitate.

contracting parties."--Chesterfield. Capio

S cap, capt, cip capable,capture, anticipate,
I tare

Derivatively considered, to combine is to put things together Icipi, cept recipient, recentive. in pairs, but it is employed without this restriction to signify to Carcer a prison

incarcerate.

put together generally. Caro(carnis) fiesh

carni, carn carnivorous, incarnate. Voro I derour

voracious.

“The impediments were – first, the negligence of the pastors; L'arus dear

caress.

secondly, combinations, that is double benefices, when men having two S ced Cedo

recede.

cures could not sufficiently attend both."-Hales.
I gire place to

cers
concession, acc 38, success.

Few painters have obliged us with finer scenes, or have possesse ! Celer stift

crler
celority, acc ferate.

the art of combining woods, lakes, and rocks into more agreeable Centum a hundred

cent
century, centennial.

pictures than G. Poussin."--Hurd, Cerno I separate, sce Ccin

discern. Cretus

It is curious to see in incubation, the act of the hen in settin separated

cret

Becretion, discose)t. Cate

on her eggs, and incumbency, the condition of a clergyman as a trhale

cel

cetaceous. (inctus giiked

occupant of a living, how the same stem, and very nearly the cinch

succinct, precincts. Uitus quickly moved cit

cite, excitement.

same lettera, may come to signify things so very unlike. Clamo I call out

clam, claim
exclamation, proclaim.

Cadaverous comes immediately from cadaver, a corpse, and Clarus clear

clar
clarify, declare.

denotes the colour or complexion of a corpse. Cadaver, a corré, Claudo I shut

include, excule.

by its etymology points out the fact which denotes death, namely, Clausus slut

chaus, clus
clase, secusion.

falling, from cado, I fall. A dead body cannot stand.

a bind

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re

ceis, cend

cu il

capitis;}

carcer

101

car

clud

"The subject of the present chapter will be the offence of homicide, measure subsided. The autographs of the writers of the New Testaof destroying the life of man, in its several stages of guilt, arising from ment are not known to exist. The word apology sometimes signifies the particular circumstances of mitigation or aggravation which attend defonce rather than excuse. The former is the older meaning of the it."-Blackstone, Commentaries."

term. The monuments of Egypt are covered with hieroglyphics.

The hieroglyphics of Egypt have for the most part been at length Homicide, that is, in its corresponding Saxon term, manslaughter, denotes the general act of man-killing, leaving it to be deciphered. Exodus is the name borne by the second book in the

This name was given to the book because it recounts the decided whether the killing was or was not murder, that is, pre- departure of the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt. ineditated killing. Unpremeditated man-killing is generally termed manslaughter, as contradistinguished from murder. It To endeavour to improve yourself in composition, report the deserves attention, that not one of these words, homicide, man.

following anecdote, as before, to a child or to a class of slaughter, man-killing, murder (Ger. mord, murder; Fr. mort, children :death ; and Lat. mort, death), conveys in itself the idea of

ESCAPE OF THE DUKE OF ALBANY. “malice aforethought.” Clinical is a scientific word, and, like most of our scientific Princess of Denmark, having disgusted his proud nobility by patro

King James III. of Scotland, after his marriage with Margaret, words, may have come to us from the Greek; for the Greek nising and receiving into favour many persons of inferior rank, deep Hino is the root of the Latin clino, and is similar to it in import. and dangerous intrigues were formed against him. By these minions A clinical lecture is a discourse on a disease, delivered by the and upstart counsellors he was speedily made aware that his brothers bedside of the patient. A clinical convert is one that is con. -Alexander, Duke of Albany, and John, Earl of Mar--were forming verted on his death-bed. In the early history of the churches, conspiracies agaiust him, and that the former aimed at nothing less those were called clinici or clinical, who, wishing to have all than wresting the sceptre from his hand-a fact which has since been

In 1482, Albany was committed to their sins washed away at once, postponed baptism till their proved by authentic documents. dying hour. See Gibson's remarks on the delay of baptism by who knew that his accession to power would assuredly be their

the Castle of Edinburgh, where he was kept a close prisoner by those Constantine, miscalled the Great.

destruction. He had not been long in durance until he formed and “ Horror stalks around

matured a plan of escape, which, with desperate courage, he executed Wild staring, and his sad concomitant

in the following manner. Terrified by the mysterious fate of Mar, Despair, of abject look."-Philip.

and aware that his day of trial was approaching, some of Albany's "I persuaded her to take, as hot as she could well drink it, every numerous friends in France or Scotland contrived means to acquaint morning, a full draught of the decoction of centaury boiled in beer or him that a small vessel, laden with Gascon wine, lay in the roadstead of ale." - Bayle.

Leith, by which he might escape if he made an effort. The tower in

which he was confined was probably David's, for we are informed that Cordial, of Latin origin, has a corresponding word from the it “arose from the northern verge of the rock on which the castle is Saxon, that is, hearty. This is by no means a solitary case, as

founded, where the height of the precipice seemed to bar all possiwill appear from the ensuing list :

bility of escape.” He had but one attendant (styled his chamberLatin, Saxon.

Latin,
Saron,

chield) left to wait upon him, and to this trusty follower alone he Timid fearful.

Altitude
height.

revealed his intention. From the French vessel he received two small Felocity swiftness.

Annual
yearly.

runlets or barrels of wine, which luckily the custle-guard permitted to Eileminate womanish.

Aqueous watery. be carried into his apartment untasted and unexamined. On opening Edifice building.

Auditor
hearer.

them in private the duke found that they contained Malvoisie, and, Paucity fewness.

what was of more importance, a strong rope and a waxen roll inclosing

an anonymous letter, urging him to lose no time in attempting to In incorporate, animadvert, and other words, the student is

escape, as the king's minions had determined he should die ere the Ipected to make use of the information which he has already morrow's sunset ; and the billet ended by an assurance that the boats had supplied to him regarding prepositions in combination, as of the French vessel should await him at the shore of Leith. The well es regarding prefixes and suffixes.

first point to be gained was to lull the suspicions of the captain of the "Cremation, burning, is applied particularly to the ancient custom

guard, for which purpose the duke invited him to supper, and by of destroying corpses by fire. The Chinois, without cremation or urnal

pressing him and three of his soldiers to drink freely of the Malvoisie,

succeeded in partially intoxicating them. After gaming and drink. interment of their bodies, make use of trees and much burning, while

ing until the hour grew late, Albany found the moment for action had they plant a pine-tree by their grave."-Brown, Urn Burial.”

Rushing upon the captain he snatched a long dagger from his Capillary signifies that which is like hair ; hence it is applied baldrick, and buried it repeatedly in his breast ; then, quick as thought, to the small vessels of the body, as the ramifications (branches)

he dispatched the intoxicated soldiers in the same manner, and, in of the arteries, “ the capillaries;” also to tubes; and attraction

token of his hostility and contempt (with the assistance of his in tubes as fine as hair, is called “capillary attraction."

chamber-chield), he savagely threw the bodies on the great fire that

blazed in the stone fire-place of the tower; and there in their armour "A strict and succinct style is that where you can take away nothing they broiled and sweltered like tortoises in iron shells. Having without losse, and that losse to be manifest."--Ben Jonson.

secured the keys of the doors, they locked them as they retired, and * To translate him line for line is impossible, because the Latin is stealthily hurried to the wall, which they prepared to descend at tha naturally a more succinct language than either the Italian, Spanish, most retired part. The chamber-chield lowered himself first over th? French, or even the English ; which by reason of its monosyllables, is beetling crag, which is two hundred feet in height, but the cord iar the most compendious of them."-Dryden.

proving too short, it slipped suddenly through his hands, he fell to

the bottom, and there lay sepseless. We may imagine how the heart The idea in succinct, girded, is taken from the custom prevalent of the blood-stained Albany must have beat at this terrible crisie ! among the ancient Greeks and Romans of gathering up and Every moment was fraught with dauger, and his death or life wera kinding around the waist their long flowing robes, when they hanging by a hair. Rushing back to his apartment in the tower, ho Tere about to apply to any manual occupation. Compare tore the sheets from his bed, twisted them into a rope, lengthenedl 2. Tüi. 9; John xii. 4, 5.

the cord, looped it around an embrasure, and, lowering himself over

the rampart, and the rugged rocks it overlooked, reached the bottom EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

in snfety. There he found his attendant stretched on the ground, Tords with their proper Prepositions to be formed into sentencos. with his thigh-bone broken. Unwilling to leave behind him, to the WORDS. FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES.

mercy of his enemies, one who had been so faithful, Albany, with a C'ear of, clarus, bright, distinct.

sentiment of gratitude which seems almost incompatible with his preCoalesce with, coalesco, I grow together.

vious ferocity, lifted him on his shoulders, and, being a man of gigantie Coincide with, cum, in, cado, I fall in with,

stature and uncommon strength, carried him thus with ease to Leith, Commoze with, communis, common.

where they embarked without delay; and setting sail before the Commit to, cum, mitto, I send with.

rising sun brightened the German sea, cast anchor under the tower3 Cowaingnicate to, communico, I communicate.

of Dunbar, the patrimouial castle of Albany. During the wholo Compare to (in respect to

night nothing was known of his escape; but daylight revealed the quality),

rope and twisted sheets hanging over the northern ramparts; thero Coripare with (by way of comparo, compare, match.

was immediately given an alarm, which the dreadful stench in David's Mustration),

tower must have increased. His flight was discovered, and the half

cousumed corpses were found in the fire-place of his chamber. EXERCISE IN PARSING.

Enraged and confounded, James III. refused to credit the intelliSome have termed the “Song of Solomon, or the Canticles," a geuce until he had examined the place in person. Memorials of tho Beoow Epithalamiuin. The rage for autographs seems to have in a Castle of Edinburgh, pp. 52-55,

corne.

I

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXVIII. sphere vines are planted, and arrive at perfection at the Cape of

Good Hope, on the coasts of Chili, at the embouchure of the SECTION LXIII. --AMPELIDEÆ, OR VITACEÆ, THE VINE Rio de la Plata, and in Australia. It is, however, the south FAMILY.

of France which must be regarded as the especial land of the Characteristics : Calyx free; petals four to five inserted upon vine. the border of a hypogynons, or sub-perigynous disc; æstivation The greater number of the Vitacece contain acids of various valvate; stamens five, opposite to the petals; ovary two, three, kinds distributed throughout all parts of the plant, and in or six celled ; ovules ascendant, erect, or reflexed; berry two various proportions; sometimes in the pure condition, someto six celled; ovule dicotyledonous, straight, very minute, lying times mixed with other principles. In the berry of certain at the base of a fleshy albumen ; stem ligneous ; leaves palmi. species is found a kind of sugar named by chemists glucose, lobed, digitate, or pinnate.

otherwise known as grape sugar. It is in consequence of the The Ampelidere or Vitacece are generally trees or shrubs presence of this sugar that the juice of the berries when ex. supplied for the most part with tendrils, containing an abund. pressed ferment and give rise to wino, a drink which we have ance of aqueous juice, and having contorted knotty branches. scriptural authority for saying “rejoices the heart of man.” The lower leaves are opposite the upper ones, alternate; stipules The general theory of wine-making is as follows:- The ripe very small, sometimes absent. The flowers are minute, greenish berries contain glucose, much water, a fermentive principle, in colour, arranged in a multifloral panicle or a corymbiform mucus, tannic, malic, and nitric acids, and bitartrate of potash cyme. Calyx very small, obscurely dentated, and nearly entire, (cream of tartar), in addition to many other salts and colour. surrounded by a disc, on which the petals and stamens are ing matters. The grapes are crushed by the naked feet of borne. The corolla is polypetalous, or almost polypetalous ; workmen in large cisterns of wood or stone. On the expiration style very short, stigma terminating

of a certain time, fermentation in a flattened head. Seeds contained

commences amongst the various in a thorny shell; radicle inferior.

principles of the grape; the mass The Vitaceæ inhabit all the inter

becomes hot, owing to certain chemi. tropical region, and especially that

cal compositions and decompositions of Asia, Beyond the tropics they

which are taking place ; sugar beare rare, more especially the Tropic

comes changed into alcohol and carof Capricorn. None are found indi.

bonic acid, and the liquor becomes genous to Europe; and if wild vines

inebriating. A scum now rises, which are found in the forests of this con.

is nothing more than the partially tinent, the plant is to be regarded

decomposed ferment, and collects in as having escaped from domesticity.

a thick crust. After the lapse of a The true country of the vine seems

few more days fermentation ceases. to be Mingrelia and Georgia, be

The wine is now formed, and only tween the mountains of the Cau.

requires to be cleared. Red wine casus, Ararat, and Taurus. The

owes its colour to the presence of a most ancient traditions mention the

blue resinoid principle resident in the vine as having been made use of

pellicle of the fruit. This principle, by man, the culture of which may

insoluble in water, is soluble in alcobe said to be commensurate with the

hol, and therefore colours the wine advent of man upon the globe.

in proportion as the alcoholic ferIf we examine geographically the

mentation has become developed. culture of the vine as at present

The free acids contained in wine circumscribed, we shall find the

cause this blue colour to change to northern limit of the region to be

red. Taking advantage of these prinbounded on the western coast of

ciples, nothing is more common than Europe by the embouchure of the

the preparation of white wine from Loire. This limit, stretching away

dark grapes; all that is necessary to to the east, approaches still further

effect the result being the removal of towards the north until it attains

the expressed juice from the grape the fifty-first parallel of latitude at

husks before alcoholic fermentation the confluence of the Rhine and

has set in. Moselle. Vines which grow to the

The preparation of sparkling wines north of this limit no longer furnish

is effected by bottling the juice before wine, and scarcely yield decent vine.

213. THE CORINTH GRAPE.

fermentation has quite ceased. In gar. The culture of the vine suc

this way a portion of carbonic acid. ceeds in the valleys of the Rhine and Danube. In Hungary which would have escaped under other circumstances, is forcibly it does not prosper north of the forty-ninth degree of north retained and dissolved in the wine. latitude; and in Central Russia it stretches along the northern When grapes are dried they constitute raisins. The drying coast of the Caspian under the forty-eighth parallel. This process is either conducted in the sun or artificially. . Raisins of limit, if viewed in its ensemble, corresponds with an arc, the Malaga, of Damascus, and of Corinth (currants), are all sunextremities of which rest westward on the forty-seventh, east- dried. Valencia and all other raisins are dried by artificial ward on the forty-eighth parallel, and the curve of which rises means. The native American representatives of the vine, Vitis as high as the fifty-first degree of north latitude. This vulpina and Vitis labrusca, are but poor substitutes for the curvature is explained by the fact that moro heat in given time species of the Old World, the berries being harsh tasted and is furnished to plants growing inland than to those which sharp in flavour; nevertheless, the American native grape is grow near the sea-coast. Passing on from the Caspian Sea not altogether despicable, although it has gained the name of towards the East, we see that the vine is not unknown in “fox-grape,” from its sourness. Bokhara and Northern Persia; but on the southern declivity The varieties of the common vine now known are far too of the Himalaya Range it becomes rare, and altogether dis- numerous for enumeration. Perhaps of all these varieties the appears in the valley of the Indus and the maritime region of one possessing most interest is the little Corinth grape, which Persia. South of the twenty-ninth degree of north latitude it yields our so-called currants—a corruption, by the way, of requires to be protected against the ardour of the sun. Under Corinths. Strange to say, this grape, if planted very far away the tropics the vine is sometimes planted in gardens. It from the Grecian Archipelago, ceases to yield the peculiar grape, grows rapidly, but the fruits always wither before arriving but degenerates, and furnishes grapes of ordinary size and at perfection. In North America the vine is not cultivated character. A representation of the Corinth grape is subjoincd beyond the thirty-eighth degree, but many delicious kinds of (Fig. 213). These grapes are extensively cultivated in Zante wine are made in the United States. In the southern hemi.! and others of the Ionian Islands for exportation.

[graphic]

SECTION LXIV.-ARALIACEÆ, OR IVY WORTS.

four, alternate with the petals ; ovary inferior, two to three celled, Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary ; petals five or uniovular ; ovules pendent, reflexed; style simple ; fruit drupaten inserted upon an epigynous disc, sessile ; valvular in æsti. ceous, two or three celled; seeds inverted; embryo dicotyledonous, ration ; stamens inserted with the petals, in number equal to straight in the axis of a Aleshy albumen; radicle superior. the latter, and alternate with them, or double

The Cornaceo are generally trees or shrubs their number; ovary inferior, two or more

with opposite, simple, or stipulate leaves. celled, uniovulate; ovules pendent, reflexed ;

Flowers disposed in a capitulum, umbel, or styles equal in number to the cells, distinct or

corymb. The Cornacece are allied with the coherent; fruit bacciform, dry, or fleshy ; seed

Caprifoliacec, from which, however, they inverse, dicotyledonous; embryo very small

may be distinguished by their free petals. at the base of a fleshy albumen; radicle

They are also allied with Araliaceae in their superior.

general aspect, and in the possession of a The Araliacece generally possess a woody

similar fructification. stem, and have for the most part alternate or

The Cornaceæ inhabit the temperate and stipulate leaves. Flowers regular, capitular,

cool regions of the northern hemisphere. ambelliferous, or in racemes.

Certain members of the order possess in their The Araliacee are inhabitants of tropical

bark a peculiar bitter principle termed corand temperate regions of both hemispheres.

niine, also an astringent matter. Some proThis natural order has a certain resemblance

duce edible fruits and oily seeds. The greater to the Umbellifere, both in general aspect

number possess a wood of great hardness. and chemical qualities. In Araliacece, however,

The cornel-tree (Cornus mascula) is generally

[graphic]

214, THE GRAPE VINE (VITIS VINIFERA). 215. THE

216. THE RACEME-FLOWERING ARALIA (ARALIA RACECOMMON IVY (HEDERA HELIX).

MOSA). 217. THE DOGWOOD (CORNUS SANGUINEA). the aromatic resinous principles are masked by

diffused over most parts of the world. The astringent and bitter matters.

Cornus sanguinea (Fig. 217) produces bitter The common ivy needs no description as to

and nauseous fruits, but the seed yields an oil general appearance. Its leaves, when bruised,

useful for illumination and the fabrication of are aromatic, and their juice, incorporated with fatty matter, soap. The Benthamia fragifera, or strawberry-fruited Benthamia, constitutes a good application to burns. The ginseng (Panax is a shrub of Nepaul and Japan, now generally cultivated in EuroSchinseng) grows in Tartary, China, and Nepaul. Its root con- pean gardens. The name fragifera is given to this plant on actains a bitter, an acrid, and a saccharine matter. The plant count of its bearing a fruit similar in general appearance to a enjoys in Asia an immense reputation as a tonic, and sells for strawberry. The Cornus florida is a North American shrub. It three times its weight in silver. Panax quinquefolium grows possesses an astringent bark, and is employed as a substitute for in North America ; its root is collected and sold to the Chinese quinine by American medical practitioners. The Aucuba Japonica, 23 a substitute for the real ginseng. The Aralia nudicaulis, or variegated laurel, is a Japanese shrub, an evergreen with shining a North American plant, is celebrated as a sudorific, and its leaves, opposite, coriaceous,

sometimes plumose. Flowers diceroots are used for the purpose of adulterating sarsaparilla. cious, small, axillary, disposed in panicles, four petaloid, four SECTION LXV.-CORNACEÆ, OR CORNELS.

staminiferous. Ovary adherent, unilocular, uniovulate ; ovule Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary ; petals four, pendent, reflexed. Fruit, a berry. This shrub, which is full of inserted upon an epigynous disc, valvate in æstivation ; stamens ramifications and very elegant, is a charming garden ornament.

ܪ

n.

as:

pen, befall.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXXVIII. fläger ließ ten Angeklagten nicht zu Worte fommen, sondern fuht iminer

mit seinen Beschuldigungen fort, ohne auf die Entschuldigungen zu hören. SECTION LXXIV.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued).

24. Der Lärm übertönte die Stimme des Rebenden, und ließ ihn nicht Nicht wahr? is it not true (literally, not true?), answers to our Worte fommen. phrases, “isn't it?” “wasn't it?” “don't they?" etc., after an

EXERCISE 143. assertion; as :--Es ist faltes Wetter, nicht wahr? it is cold weather, 1. Your friend whom we saw the day before yesterday is is it not? Sie fennen ihn, nicht wahr? you know him, do you not? sick, is he not? 2. It was an agreeable evening, was it not, my Sometimes nicht wahr precedes the assertion, as :-Nicht wahr, Sie friend ? 3. Yes, it was; and I shall never forget the pleasure sind müte, you are tired, are you not?

we had. 4. Your brother was also there, was he not ? 5. It is 1. Aufwarten (compounded of the particle auf and warten (§ 90) yet early, is it not? 6. No, it is very late, and we must go. signifies to wait upon, to serve, and governs the dative. Ich 17. I have waited already an hour for my friend, but still he has svarte Ihnen auf, I wait upon you. Darf ich Ihnen mit einer Tasse Thee not come. 8. I am waiting for our servant. 9. Do not wait auswarten? may I serve you with a cup of tea ? Ich danke Ihnen, for him, I have just sent him out. 10. After I arrived in Lon. sometimes abbreviated to Id tanke, means in addition to our “I don, I went directly and waited upon my friend, for whom I had thank you,” also, “No, I thank you,” according to the significa letters of recommendation. 11. May serve you with a cup of tion intended to be given. Ich bin sa frei (literally, I am so free) chocolate ? 12. No, I thank you. 13. Will you not visit us or Ich bitte, is the usual equivalent to our “ if you please.” Ich before you go to the Continent ? 14. Yes, I shall pay you a mache' ihm meine Aufwartung, I wait upon him (literally, make visit. 15. May I help you to a glass of ale Š 16. I thank you, my waiting upon him). Warten, when followed by the preposition I never drink it. 17. I have heard the news, but I do not know auf, signifies “to wait for;” as :- -Ich warte auf ihn, I am waiting what to say to it. 18. You speak French and German, do you for him.

not? 2. Sollen (see § 83 [6] Remark [13]), with an infinitive, is SECTION LXXV.-IDIOMS RELATING TO VERBS. often answered, in English, by the infinitive only, preceded by

Schmerzen, to pain, is used like the corresponding English the proposition “to;" as :-Ich weiß nicht, was ich thun soll, I do word; as :-Der Geranfe ichmerzt mich, the thought pains me.

Dic not know what to do.

Wunte schmerzt ihn, the wound pains him. 3. Nicht zum Worte, or, zu Worte fommen, signifies, literally, not 1. Weh (pain), joined with thun (to do, to make), forms the to come to the word, or to words ; that is, not to be able to speak. phrase Web thun, to pain, to grieve (literally, to make, or canse VOCABULARY.

pain); as :- Das thut mir web, that grieves me (it causes me pain). Plachen,

Die Hand thut Aix-la-1 G'benfalls, also, too, Umsonst', in vain,

Gr bat tein Kinte weh gethan, he has hurt the child. Chapelle. likewise.

vainly.

ihm weh, the hand pains him. Das Kint hat sildy wch gethan, the An'fläger, m. accuser, Entschul'rigung, f. ex. Verge'bens, in vain, child has hurt itself. impleader. cuse, apology. vainly.

2. Leid thun (literally, to make, or cause pain) is employed to Nuf'warten. (See R.1. Kellner, m. waiter, Vergnügt", cheerful, denote mental sufferings ; sorrow; as :-Es thut ihm leir, tag et es above.) bar-keeper.

68 thut mir leit, ihr merry, delightful. gethan hat, he is sorry that he has done it. Beschul'digung, f. accu- Krönung, f. corona- Vertreter, m. repre.

nicht gesehen zu haben, I am sorry not to have seen him. sation, imputation tion.

sentative.

3. Feblen, to fail, to miss, to lack, is often used impersonally; Bier, n. beer, ale. Ordnen, to regulate, Widerfahren, to hap.

-Es fehlt ihm an Persiand, he was lacking in understanding.

So, also, Wad fehlt dem Manne ? what ails the man ? order.

Was fehlt Chocola'de, f. chocolate.

Tasse, f. cup,
dish. Zunge, f. tongue.

Ihnen, what ails you, or, what is the matter with you ?

VOCABULARY.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

21b'weiden, to deviate. Meiten, Ihr Herr Vater ist franf, nicht wahr? Your father is sick, isn't he?

to avoid, Verfen'nen, to mis

Abermals, again, once shun, to abstain take, to take for Ich war'tete eine Stunde auf Sie, I waited an hour for you; then

from.

another. dann ging ich, und machte dem I went and waited upon Vegegnen, to encoun- Nieterschlagen, to de- Verstimmt', out of Fremren meine Auf'wartung. (called upon) the stranger.

ter, meet.

ject, discourage, humour, out of Er machte mich darauf auf'ıerfjam, He reminded me (made me

Ding, n. a thing. dishearten.

tune. daß die Zeit verbei' war.

observant) that the time was

Erwer'ben, to earn, Pfad, m. path. Volfélieb, n. national past.

get, obtain. Er wußte nicht, was er thun sollte.

song

| Sagen, to say, tell. He did not know what to do.

Fehlgehen,

to Die meisten Monarchen lassen ihrem (The) most monarchs allow their

go Scheiden, to part from Vor'fallen, to happen,

another. wrong, to miss the

to come to pass. Willen freien Lauf. wills free scope (course).

way. Der Lärm ließ mich nicht zum Worte The noise did not permit me to Gereu’en, to cause to Seelenrube, f. trans Wahl, f. choice.

Schmerzen. (See above) Vor'sichtig, carefni. fomme. be understood. (R. 3 above.)

repent.

quillity, peace of Wcb. (See R1, EXERCISE 142. Gottlosigkeit, f.wicked- mind.

above.) 1. Es war eine schöne Stunde, nicht wahr, mein Freund? 2. Ja, tad

Streit, m. contest,' Zufriedenheit, f. conwar es, und nicht so bald werte ich sie vergessen. 3. Nicht wahr, der Hinzu'fügen, to add to, contention.

tentedness. Nachbar war ebenfalls auf dein Feste? 4. Ja, er war tort, und sehr ver to join, adjoin. Tugent, f. virtue.

Zufügen, to cause, gnugt. 5. Nicht wahr, es ist schon sehr spät? 6. Nein, es ist noch ziem: Ceid. (See R.2,above.) In-schulrig, innocent. inflict. lidh früh. 7. Nicht wahr, es ist nicht Alles wahr, was die Leute ingen?

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. 8. Nein, nicht alles darf man Ihnen glauben. 9. Ich habe schon eine

Gs fiel nichts von Bercu'tung vor. Nothing important happened. Stunte auf ihn gevartet, und immer läßt er sich noch nicht sehen. 10. Gs idimerzt nichts länger und tiefer Nothing pains longer and memo Wir warten auf den aufwartenten Kellner. 11. Wenn Sie es erlauben,

als das Bewußtsein, seine ($ 135. deeply, than the conscious. werde ich Ihnen heute Nachmittag meine Auswartung machen. 12. Dari

4.) Jugend in Thor'heiten vergeu'. ness of having spent one's id Ihnen mit einer Tasse Thee over Kaffee aufwarten? 13. Id tanfe

tet zul baben.

(his) youth in folly. für Thee, aber ich bin so frei, cine Tasse Kaffee anzunchmen.

14. Bei der Krönung der teutschen Kaiser zu Aachen warteten die anwesenten Fürsten Sagen Sie mir, was Ihnen fehlt, und Tell me what ails you, and what

wae sie Urjache Ihrer Thränen ist. is the cause of your tears. auf. 15. Ilmsonst habe ich ihn darauf aufmerksam gemacht; er fulgt nur Es fehlt mir an Vetult', tas Ende I lack patience to await the end jeinem Korrc. 16. Der Lehrer machte die Schüler darauf aufmerfíum,

meiner Seiten ab'zuwarten.

of my sufferings. wie wohl und gut Gott Alles in der Welt geort net babe. 17. Der Ritter Gin Lebirrudy, ten ich mir nicht zu'. A eulogium that I cannot ap. fragte ihn vergebens, warum er dieses Verbrechen begangen habe; ter And

eignen fann, thut mir weber, ais propriate, pains me more thai. geschuldigte hatte nichts darauf zu antworten. 18. Id habe das Schreiben

ein vertien'ter Verweis'.

a merited reproof. erhalten; allein ich weiß nicht, was ich darauf antworten soll. 19. Ich mir thut das schon web, was andern That already pains me which wüßte schon, was ich darauf antworten würde, wenn ich an Ihrer Stelle

nur leid thut.

makes others only sorry. wäre. 20. Die Männer, von denen Sie sprechen, sind eben nicht die besten Bertreter des Landes. 21. Ich ließ meiner Zunge freien Lauf, und erzählte

EXERCISE 144. bas mir wirerfahrene Unrecht.' 22. Gr ließ seiner Rede freien Lauf, und 1. Go schmerzt mich, so viele Menschen unglüdlich zu sehen. 2. Die sagte in seiner Begeisterung mehr, als er hätte thun sollen. 23. Der An, | Wunte schmerzt ihn mit jedem Tage mehr. 3. Es schmerzt nichts meht,

more.

ness.

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