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up by some connecting word: as thus, “ He writes with a pen;" “they ran torçards the river;" “the tower fell upon the Greeks;" “ Lambeth is over against Westminster-abbey." We see by these instances, how prepositions may be necessary to connect those words, which in their signification are not naturally connected.
Prepositions, in their original and literal acceptation, seem to have denoted relations of place; but they are now used figuratively to express other relations. For example, as they who are above have in several respects the advantage of such as are below, prepositions expressing high and low places are used for superiority and inferiority in general : as, “He is above disguise;"
we serve under a good master;" "he rules over a willing people ;" “ we should do nothing beneath our character."
The importance of the prepositions will be further perceived by the explanation of a few of them.
Of denotes possession or belonging, an effect or consequence, and other relations connected with these: as, “ The house of my friend;" that is, “the house belonging to my friend ; " He died of a fever ;" that is, “ in consequence of a fever."
To, or unto, is opposed to from ; as, “ He rode from Salishury to Winchester.”
For indicates the cause or motive of any action or circumstance, &c. as, “He loves her for (that is, on account of) her amiable qualities.”
By is generally used with reference to the cause. agent, means, &c.; as, “ He was killed by a fall:" that is, “ a fall was the cause of his being killed ;" * This house was built by him;" that is, “ he was the builder of it.”
With denotes the act of accompanying, uniting, &c.; as, “We will with ;" “ They are on good terms with each other." With also alludes to the instrument or means; as, “He was cut with a knife.”
In relates to time, place, the state or manner of being or acting, &c. : as, “ He was born in (that is, during) the year 1720;”.“ He dwells in the city;" She lives in affluence."
Into is used after verbs that imply motion of any kind: as, “He retired into the country;" “ Copper is converted into brass."
}Vithin, relates to something comprehended in any place or time: as,
“They are within the house;" "He began and finished his work within the limited time."
« She stands without the gate :" But it is more frequently opposed to with; as, “ You may go without me.”.
The import and force of the remaining prepositions will be readily understood, without a particular detail of them. We shall, therefore, conclude this head with observing, that there is a peculiar propriety in distinguishing the use of the prepositions by and with ; which is observable in sentences like the following: "He walks with a staff by moonlight;" "He was taken by stratagem, and killed with a sword.” . Put the one preposition for the other, and say, "he walks by a staff with moonlight;" “ he was taken with stratagem, and killed by a sword;" and it will appear, that they differ in signification more than one, at first view, would be apt to imagine.
Some of the prepositions have the appearance and effect of conjunctions; as, “ After their prisons were thrown open,' &c. Before I die ;" ** They made haste to be prepared against their friends arrived :" but if the noun time, which is understood, be added, they will lose their conjunctive form; as, “ After the time when) their prisons,” &c.
The prepositions after, before, above, beneath, and several others, sometimes appear to be adverbs, and may be so considered: as, "They had their reward soon after;" "He died not long before ;" "He dwells above :” but if the nouns time and place be added, they will lose their adverbial form; as, “ He died not long before that time,” &c.
Of Conjunctions. A CONJUNCTION is a part of speech that is chiefly used to connect sentences ; so as, qut of two or more sentences, to make but one. It sometimes connects only words.
Conjunctions are principally divided into two sorts, the COPULATIVE and the DISJUNCTIVE.
The Conjunction Copulative serves to connect or to con tinue a sentence, by expressing an addition, a supposition, a cause, &c.: as, “ He and his brother reside in London;" “I will go if he will accompany me:” “ You are happy, because you are good.”
The Conjunction Disjunctive serves, not only to connect and continue the sentence, but also to express opposition of meaning in different degrees : as, “ Though he was frequently reproved, yet he did not reform ;”. “ They came with her, but they went away without her.”
The following is a list of the principal Conjunctions.
The Copulative. And, if, that, both, then, since, for, because, therefore, wherefore.
The Disjunctive. But, or, nor, as, than, lest, though, unless, either, neither, yet, notwithstanding.
The same word is occasionally used both as a conjunction and as an adverb; and sometimes, as a preposition.” I rest then upon this argument;" then is here a conjunction: in the following phrase, it is an adverb; “ He arrived then, and not before." I submitted ;: for it was vain to resist :" in this sentence, for is a conjunction; in the next, it is a preposition : “ He contended for victory only.". In the first of the following sentences since is a conjunction; in the second, it is a preposition; and in the third, an adverb: “Since we must part, let us do it peaceably:" \ I have not seen him since that time:" “Our friendship commenced long since.”
Relative pronouns as well as conjunctions, serve to connect sentences: as, “ Blessed is the man who feareth the Lord, and keepeth his commandments."
A relative pronoun possesses the force both of a pronoun and a connectíve. Nay, the union by relatives is rather closer, than that by mere conjunctions. The latter may form twó or more sentences into one; but, by the former, several sentences may incorporate in one and the same clause of a sentence. Thus, “thou seest a man, and he is called Peter," is a sentence consisting of two distinct clauses, united by the copulative and: but, “ the man whom thou seest is called Peter,” is a sentence of one clause, and not less comprehensive than the other.
Conjunctions very often unite sentences, when they appear to unite only words; as in the following instances: “ Duty and interest forbid vicious indulgences ;" 6 Wisdom or folly governs us." Each of these forms of expression contains two sentences, namely; “ Duty forbids vicious indulgences ; interest forbids vicious indulgences;" “ Wisdom governs us, or folly governs us.”
Though the conjunction is commonly used to connect sentences together, yet, on some occasions, it merely connects words, not sentences ; as, “ The king and queen are an amiable pair ;" where the affirmation cannot refer to each ; it being absurd to say, that the king or the queen only is an amiable pair. So in the instances, two and two are four;" " the fifth and sixth volumes will complete the set of books." Prepositions also, as before observed, connect words; but they do it to show the relation which the connected words have to each other: conjunctions, when they unite words only, are designed to show the relations, which those words so united, have to other parts of the sentence.
As there are many conjunctions and connective phrases appropriated to the coupling of sentences, that are never employed in joining the members of a sentence ; so there are several conjunctions appropriated to the latter use, which are never employed in the former ; and some that are equally adapted to both those purposes : as, again, further, besides, &c. of the first kind; than, lest, unless, that, so that, &c. of the second; and but, and, for, therefore, &-c. of the last.
We shall close this chapter with a few observations on the peculiar use and advantage of the conjunctions; a subject which will, doubtless, give pleasure to the ingenious student, and expand his views of the importance of his grammatical studies.
“Relatives are not so useful in language, as conjunctions. The former make speech more concise ; the latter make it more explicit. Relatives comprehend the meaning of a pronoun and conjunction copulative : conjunctions, while they couple sentences, may also express opposition, inference, and many other relations and dependences.
Till men began to think in a train, and to carry their reasonings to a considerable length, it is not probable that they would make much use of conjunctions, or of any other connectives. Ignorant people, and children, generally speak in short and separate sentences. The same thing is true of barbarous nations: and hence uncultivated languages are not well supplied with connecting particles. The Greeks were the greatest reasoners that ever appeared in the world; and their language, accordingly, abounds more than any other in connectives.
Conjunctions are not equally necessary in all sorts of writing. "In poetry, where great conciseness of phrase is required, and every appearance of formality avoided, many of them would have a bad effect. In passionate language too, it may be proper to omit them: because it is the nature of violent passion, to speak rather in disjointed sentences, than in the way of inference and argument. Books ofaphorisms, like the Proverbs of Solomon, have few connectives; because they instruct, not by reasoning, but in detached observations. And narrative will sometimes appear very graceful, when the circumstances are plainly told, with scarcely, any other conjunction than the simple copulative and : which is frequently the case in the historical parts of Scripture. When narration is full of images or events, the omission of connectives may, by crowding the principal words upon one another, give a sort of picture of hurry and tumult, and so heighten the vivacity of description. But when facts are to be traced drown through their consequences, or upwards ta their causes; when the complicated designs of mankind are to be laid open, or conjectures offered concerning them; when the historian argues either for the elucidation of truth, or in order to state the pleas and principles of contending parties ; there will be occasion for every species of connec tive, as much as in philosophy itself. In fact, it is in argument, investigation, and science, that this part of speech is peculiarly and indispensably necessary.”
Of Interjections. INTERJECTIONs are words thrown in between the part of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of th speaker: as, « Oh ! I have alienated my friend ; alas ! fear for life :" “ virtue! how amiable thou art !"
The English Interjections, as well as those of other lan. guages, are comprised within a small compass. They are of different sorts, according to the different passions which they serve express. Those which intimate earnestnes or grief, are, O! oh! ah! alas! Such as ai o expressive o contempt, are pish ! tush ! of wonder, heigh! really! strange : of calling, hem! ho! soho! of aversion or digust, foh! fie! away! of a call of the attention, lo! behold? hark! of requesting silence, hush! hist! of salutation, welcome! hail all hail? Besides these, several others, frequent in the mouth's of the multitude, might be enumerated ; but in a grammar of a cultivated tongue, it is unnecessary to expatiate on such expressions of passion, as are scarcely worthy of being ranked among the branches of artificial language.--See the Octar Grammar,
Of Derivation. SECTION 1. Of the various ways in which words are derived
from one another. Having treated of the different sorts of words, and their various modifications, which is the first part of Etymology: it is now proper to explain the methods by which one wory is derived from another.
Words are derived from one another in various ways; vi: