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Kynge Edwarde's soule rush'd 10 hys face,
0! synge unloe mie roundelaie,
O! droppe the brynie leare wythe mee, To hym that soe-much-dreaded dethe
Daunce ne moe atte hallie daie, Ne ghastlie terrors brynge,
Lycke a rennynge ryver bee ; Beholde the manne! hee spake the truthe,
Mie love ys dedde, Hee's greater thanne a kynge !"
Gon to hys death-bedde,
Al under the wyllowe tree. * Soe lett hym die !” Duke Richarde sayde; " And maye echone oure foes
Blacke hys cryne as the wyntere nyghte, Bende downe theyre neckes lo bloudie axe, Whyte hys rode as the sommer snowe, And feede the carryon crowes.'
Rodde hys face as the mornynge lyghte,
Cald he lyes ynne the grave belowe; And nowe the horses gentlie drewe
Mie love ys dedde, Syr Charles uppe the hyghe hylle ;
Gon to hys death-bedde,
Al under the wyllowe tree.
Swote hys tongue as the throstles note, As uppe a gilded carre
Quycke ynn daunce as thought canne bee, Of victorye, bye val’rous chiefs
Defe hys taboure, codgelle stote, Gayn'd ynne the bloudie warre :
0! hee lyes bie the wyllowe tree :
Mie love ys dedde, And to the people hec dyd saie,
Gonne to hys death-bedde,
Al under the wyllowe tree.
Harke, the ravenne flappes hys wynge,
Ynne the briered delle belowe ; “ As longe as Edwarde rules thys lande,
Harke! the dethe-owle loude dothe synge, Ne quiet you wylle knowe:
To the nyghte-mares as heie goe; Your sonnes and husbandes shalle bee slayne.
Mie love ys dedde, And brookes wythe bloude shalle flowe.
Gonne to hys death-bedde, * You leave your goode and lawfulle kynge,
Al under the wyllowe tree. Whenne ynne adversitye ;
See! the whyte moone sheenes onne hie ; Lyke mee, untoe the true cause stycke, And for the true cause dye."
Whyterre ys mie true love's shroude ;
Whyterre yanne the mornynge skie, Thenne hee, wyth preestes, uponne hys knees, Whyterre yanne the evenynge cloude ; A prayer to Godde dyd make,
Mie love Beseechynge hym unto hymselfe
Gon 10 hys death-bedde, Hys partynge soule to take.
Al under the wyllowe tree. Thenne kneelynge downe, hee layde hys hedde, Heere uponne mie true love's grave, Most seemlie onne the blocke;
Schallo the haren fleurs be layde, Whyche fromme lys bodie fayre at once
Nee on hallie seyncte to save The able heddes-manne stroke :
Al the celness of a mayde.
Mie love ys dele,
Gon to hys death-bedde,
Al under the wyllowe tree.
Wythe mie hondes I'll dente the brieres
Rounde his hallie corse to gre,
Ouphante fairie, lyghte your fyres,
Heere mie bodie still schalle bee. And everye parte, and eke hys hedde,
Mie love ys dedde, Uponne a pole was putte.
Gon to hys death-bedde, One parte dyd rotte onne Kynwulph-hylle,
Al under the wyllowe tree. One onne the mynster-tower,
Comme, wythe acorne-coppe and thorne, And one from off the castle-gate The crowen dydd devoure :
Drayne mie hartys blodde awaie ;
Lyfe and alle yts goode I scorne, The other onne Seyncte Powle's goode gate, Daunce bie nete, or feaste bie daie. A dreery spectacle ;
Mie love ys dedde, Hys hedde was placed onne the hyghe crosse,
Gon to hys death-bedde, Ynne hyghe strete most nobile.
Al under the wyllowe tree. Thus was the ende of Bawdin's fate :
Waterre wytches, crownede wythe reytes, Godde prosper longe oure kynge,
Bere mee to yer leathalle tyde. And grante hee maye, wyth Bawdin's soule, I die; I comme ; mie true love waytes. Ynne Heaven Godde's mercie synge!
Thos the damselle spake, and dyed.
WILLIAM Gifford, the son of a plumber and farthing on earth, nor a friend to give me one; glazier, who dissipated his property by intempe- pen, ink, and paper, therefore, (in despite of the rance and extravagance, was born at Ashburton, in | Aippant remark of Lord Orford,) were, for the most Devonshire, in April, 1755. He lost his father part, as completely out of my reach as a crown and when only twelve years of age, and in about a sceptre. There was, indeed, a resource ; but the year afterward his mother died, leaving himself utmost caution and secrecy were necessary in apand an infant brother, “ without a relation or friend plying to it. I beat out pieces of leather as smooth in the world.” The latter was sent to the work as possible, and wrought my problems on them house, and the subject of our memoir was received with a blunted awl ; for the rest, my memory was into the house of his godfather, who put him to tenacious, and I could multiply and divide by it school for about three months, but at the end of to a great extent." that period took him home, with the view of em- Under the same unfavourable circumstances, he ploying him as a ploughboy. Being unfitted, composed and recited to his associates small pieces however, for this occupation, by an injury on his of poetry, and, being at last invited to repeat them breast, he was sent to sea in a coasting vessel, in to other circles, little collections were made for which he remained for nearly a year. “It will be him, which, he says, sometimes produced him “ as easily conceived," he says in his autobiography, much as sixpence in an evening.” The sums " that my life was a life of hardship. I was not which he thus obtained, he devoted to the puronly 'a ship-boy on the high and giddy mast,' but chase of pens, paper, &c.; books of geometry, and also in the cabin, where every menial office fell to of the higher branches of algebra ; but his master, my lot; yet, if I was restless and discontented, I finding that he had, in some of the verses before can safely say it was not so much on account of mentioned, satirized both himself and his custhis, as of my being precluded from all possi-tomers, seized upon his books and papers, and probility of reading ; as my master did not possess, nor hibited him from again repeating a line of his comdo I recollect seeing, during the whole time of my positions. At length, in the sixth year of his apabode with him, a single book of any description, prenticeship, his lamentable doggerel, as he terms except the Coasting Pilot."
it, having reached the ears of Mr. Cookesley, a He was at length recalled by his godfather, and surgeon, that gentleman set on foot " a subscription again put to school, where he made such rapid for purchasing the remainder of the time of William progress, that in a few months he was qualified to Gifford, and for enabling him to improve himself in assist his master in any extraordinary emergency ; | writing and English grammar.” and, although only in his fifteenth year, began to He now quitted shoemaking, and entered the think of turning instructer himself. His plans school of the Rev. Thomas Smerdon ; and in two were, however, treated with contempt by his years and two months from what he calls the day guardian, who apprenticed him to a shoemaker, at of his emancipation, he had made such progress, Ashburton, to whom our author went “ in sullen- that his master declared him to be fit for the uniness and in silence,” and with a perfect hatred of versity. He was accordingly sent by Mr. Cookes. his new occupation. His favourite pursuit at this ley to Oxford, where he obtained, by the exertions time was arithmetic, and the manner in which he of the same gentleman, the oflice of Bible reader continued to extend his knowledge of that science at Exeter College, of which he was entered a is thus related by himself: “I possessed," he ob-member. Here he pursued his studies with unreserves, “ but one book in the world ; it was a trea- mitting diligence, and had already commenced his lise on algebra, given to me by a young woman, poetical translation of the Satires of Juvenal, when who had found it in a lodging-house. I considered the death of Mr. Cookesley interrupted the progress it as a treasure, but it was a treasure locked up ; of the work. A fortunate accident procured him for it supposed the reader to be well acquainted a new patron in Earl Grosvenor, in whose family with simple equations, and I knew nothing of the he for some time resided, and afterward accommatter. My master's son had purchased Fenning's panied to the continent his son, Lord Belgrave. Introduction: this was precisely what I wanted ; On his return to England, he settled in London, but he carefully concealed it from me, and I was and, devoting himself to literary pursuits, publishindebted to chance alone for stumbling on his ed, in 1791, and 1794, successively, his poetical hiding-place. I sat up for the greatest part of satires, the Baviad, and the Mæviad; the one several nights successively; and, before he sus containing an attack on the drama, and the other pected his treatise was discovered, had completely an invective against the favourite poets of the day. mastered it. I could now enter upon my own: and In 1800, he published his Epistle to Peter Pindar, that carried me pretty far into the science. This in which he charged the satirist with blasphemy ; was not done without difficulty. I had not a and Wolcot accused him of obscenity. This led to
an assault, and Wolcot would have inflicted severe Juvenal entire, except in his grossness, and to maker chastisement on Gifford, but for the interference him speak as he would have spoken among us. of a powerful Frenchman, who happened to be in this he has so far failed, that whilst he omits to present, and who turned Wolcot out of the reading. furnish the glowing imagery, luxuriant diction, and room, where the scene occurred, into the street, impetuous fluency of the Roman satirist, he has throwing his wig and cane after him. In 1802, ap- retained many of his worst and most objectionable peared his long-promised version of Juvenal, which passages. It has been well observed, by a writer was attacked by the Critical Review, in an erudite in the New Monthly Magazine, that his translation but somewhat personal article, that called forth presents us rather with the flail of an infatuated a reply from our author, entitled, Examination of rustic, than with the exterminating falchion of Juthe Strictures of the Critical Review upon Juve- venal. His Baviad and Mæviad evince first-rate nal.
satirical powers; but in these, as in most of his In 1805, and 1816, he published, successively, writings, a degree of coarse virulence displays his editions of Massinger, and Ben Jonson ; and in itself, which shows that literary associations had 1821, appeared his translation of Persius. He next not refined his mind. edited the works of Ford, in two volumes ; and he These satires would not have found a place in had proceeded with five volumes of those of Shir- this collection, but for their intimate connexion ley, when his labours were terminated by his death. with English literary history, and the influence He died at Pimlico, on the 31st of December, 1826, they undoubtedly exerted in reforming public and was interred in Westminster Abbey. Being a taste, and preparing the way for that galaxy of single man, he died in opulent circumstances ; illustrious poets who succeeded him. Of late years having enjoyed, for some years, an annuity from Gifford was principally known as the editor of Lord Grosvenor, besides holding the office of pay. the Quarterly Review, a work established by himmaster of the band of gentleman pensioners, with self in 1809, and of which he continued to be the a salary of 3001. a year; and, for a time, that of conductor till 1824. He also for some time edited comptroller of the lottery, with a salary of 6001. a the Anti-jacobin newspaper, in which he displayed year.
his usual acuteness, asperity, and subservience to The fame of Gifford rests principally upon his the party by which he thrived ; his politics being Juvenal, which occupied the greater part of his invariably those of his interest. life, and was sent into the world with every ad- Gifford is chiefly known in America by his base vantage that could be derived from the most care and venomous attacks upon us in the Quarterly sul attention on the part of the author, and the Review. These, however, were probably necescorrection of his most able friends. It still falls sary in order for him to retain the direction of that short, however, of Mr. Gifford's attempt to give periodical. He slandered for his bread.
stood too little of the language in which they were THE BAVIAD.
written to be disgusted with them. In this there
was not much harm ; nor, indeed, much good : but, INTRODUCTION.
as folly is progressive, they soon wrought themTota cohors lamen est inimica, omnesque manipli selves into an opinion that the fine things were Consensu magno officiunt:-dignum erit ergo really deserved, which they mutually said and sung Declamatoris Mutinensis corde Vagelli,
of each other. Curn duo crura habeas, offendere tot caligatos!
Thus persuaded, they were unwilling that their In 1785, a few English of both sexes,* whom inimitable productions should be confined to the o. ince had jumbled together at Florence, took a little circle which produced them; they therefore fi icy 10 while away their time in scribbling high- transmitted them hither; and, as their friends were fle vn panegyrics on themselves, and complimentary strictly enjoined not to show them, they were first “canzonettas" on two or three Italians,t who under handed about the town with great assiduity, and
then sent to the press. * Among whom I find the names of Mrs. Piozzi, Mr. A short time before the period of which we speak, Greathead, Mr. Merry, Mr. Parsons, &c.
a knot of fantastic coxcombs, headed by one Este, + Mrs. Piozzi has since published a work on what she is pleased to call British Synonymes: the better, I suppose, lo enable these foreign gentlemen to compre- as much Latin from a child's Syntax, as sufficed to expose hend her multifarious erudition.
the ignorance which she so anxiously labours to conceal. Though “no one better knows his own house" than 1
“ If such a one be fit to write on Synonymes, speak.” the vanity of this woman, yet the idea of her undertaking Pignotti himselflaughs in his sleeve; and his countrymen, such a work had never entered my head; and I was long since undeceived, prize the lady's lalents at their thunderstruck when I first saw it announced. To exe
true worth, cule it with any tolerable degree of success, required a Et centum Talegi curto centusse licentur. rare combination of talents, among the least of which may be numbered, neatness of style, acuteness of percep- 1 Quære Thrales ! - Printer's Devil, tion, and a more than common accuracy of discrimina- 2 Thus translated by Mr. Bulmer's desil, (the young gentleman who fur tion; and Mrs. Piozzi brought to the task a jargon long nished the conjectural emendation above, which is highly spoken of by the
German critics :) since become proverbial for its vulgarity, an utter inca..
And, for a clipt half-crown, expose to sale pability of defining a single term in the language and just
A hundred Synomists like Madam Turale
had set up a daily paper called the World. It not a day passed without an amatory epistle fraught was perfectly unintelligible, and therefore much with thunder and lighting, et quicquid habent read ; it was equally lavish of praise and abuse, telorum armamentaria cæli.—The fever turned (praise of what appeared in its own columns, and to a frenzy ; Laura Maria, Carlos, Orlando, Ade. abuse of every thing that appeared elsewhere ;) laide, and a thousand nameless names caught the and as its conductors were at once ignorant and infection : and from one end of the kingdom* to conceited, they look upon themselves to direct the the other, all was nonsense and Della Crusca. taste of the town, by prefixing a short panegyric to Even THEN, I waited, with a patience which I every trifle which came before them.
can better account for than excuse, for some one It is scarcely necessary to observe, that Yendas, (abler than myself) to step forth 10 correct the and Laura Marias, and Tony Pasquins, have long growing depravity of the public taste, and check claimed a prescriptive right to infest our periodical the inundation of absurdity now bursting upon us publications : but as the editors of them never pre- from a thousand springs. As no one appeared, and tended to criticise their harmless productions, they as the evil grew every day more alarming (for bedwere merely perused, laughed at, and forgotten. ridden old women, and girls at their samplers beA paper, therefore, which introduced their trashgan to rave,) I determined, without much confidence with hyperbolical encomiums, and called upon the of success, to try what could be effected by my town to admire it, was an acquisition of the utmost feeble powers; and accordingly wrote the followimportance to these poor people, and naturally be- ing poem. came the grand depository of their lucubrations. At this auspicious period the first cargo of poetry
1800. arrived from Florence, and was given to the public
Whoever has read the first editions of the BAVIAD through the medium of this favoured paper. There must have perceived, that its satire was directwas a specious brilliancy in these exotics which ed against the wretched taste of the followers of dazzled the native grubs who had never ventured the Cruscan school, without the slightest reference beyond a sheep, and a crook, and a rose tree grove, to their other qualities, moral or political. with an ostentatious display of “ blue hills,” and
In this I should have persevered to the end, had " crashing torrents,” and “ petrifying suns!"+ From I not been provoked to transgress the bounds preadmiration to imitation is but a step. Honest Yonda scribed to myself, by the diabolical conduct of one tried his hand at a descriptive ode, and succeeded of my heroes, the notorious Anthony Pasquin. beyond his hopes ; Anna Matilda followed ; in a
This man, who earned a miserable subsistence word,
by working on the fear or vanity of artists, actors,
&c., hardened by impunity, flew at length at higher -- Contagio labem Hanc dedit in plures, sicut grex totus in agris Unius scahie cadit, et porrigine porci.
some time, Della Crusca became impatient for a sight While the epidemic malady was raging from fool of his beloved, and Anna, in evil hour, consented to be to foul, Della Crusca came over, and immediately come visible. What was the consequence ? announced himself by a sonnet to Love. Anna Tacta places, audita places, si non videare Matilda wrote an incomparable piece of nonsense Tola places, neutro si videare places. in praise of it: and the two “great luminaries of
Mr.Bell, however, tells the story another way. Accordthe age," as Mr. Bell properly calls them, fell despe- ing to him, “ Chance alone procured the interview." rately in love with each other. From that period, Whatever procured it, all the lovers of " true poetry,"
with Mrs. Piozzi at their head, expected wonders from
it. The flame that burned with such ardour while the * In this paper were given the earliest specimens of lady was yet unseen, they hoped would blaze with unerthose unqualified and audacious attacks on all private ampled brightness at the sight of the bewitching object. character; which the town first smiled at for their Such were their hopes. But what, as Dr. Johnson quaintness, then tolerated for their absurdity, and now, gravely asks, are the hopes of man! or indeed of woman! that other papers, equally wicked, and more intelligible, -for this fatal meeting put an end to the whole. With have ventured to imitate it,-will have to lament to the the exception of a marvellous dithyrambic, which Della last hour of British liberty.
Crusca wrote while the impression was yet warm upon † Here Mr. Parsons is pleased to advance his farthing him, and which consequently gave a most accurate acrushlight. “Crashing torrents and petrifying suns are count of it, nothing has since appeared to the honour of extremely ridiculous,”-habes confitentem!" but they are Anna Matilda : and the “ tenth muse," the Rangel," the not to be found in the Florence Miscellany." Who said “goddess," has sunk into an old woman; with the com. they were ? But apropos of the Florence Miscellany. Mr. forting reflection of having mumbled love to an ungrateParsons says that I obtained a copy of it by a breach of con- ful swain. fidence; and seems to fancy, "good easy man!" that I de- -Non hic est sermo pudicus rived some prodigious advantage from it:yet I had written In vetula, quoties lascivum intervenit illud both the poemos, and all the notes save one, before I knew
Ζωη και Ψυχη. . that there was such a treasure in existence. He might have seen, if passion had not rendered him as blind as lieve Mrs. Robinson, took part in the general infatuation:
* Kingdom. This is a trifle. Heaven itself, if we may be. a mill horse, that I constantly allude to poems published separately in the periodical sheets of the day, and after.
" When midst ethereal fire ward collected with great parade by Bell and others. I Thou strikest thy DELLA CRUSCAN lyre, never looked into the Florence Miscellany but once ;
Round to catch the hearenly song, and the only use then made of it was to extract a sound- Myriads of wondering seraphs throng !" ing passage from the odes of that deep-mouthed Theban, I almost shudder while I quote: but so it ever is, Bertie Greathead, Esq. # The termination of this "everlasting" attachment
Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. was curious. When the genuine enthusiasm of the cor. And Merry had given an example of impious temerity, respondence (Preface to the Albun) had continued for I which this wretched woman was but too eager to imitate.
A PARAPHRASTIC IMITATION OF THE FIRST SATIRE
game, and directed his attacks against an illustrious persecuted brethren, to shift for himself. He accordstranger.
ingly engaged in a New York paper, called “ The These, which were continued, from day to day, Federalist,” but unfortunately his writings did not in the Morning Post, with a rancour that seemed happen to hit the taste of his adopted countrymen; indefatigable, were, after some time, incorporated for after a few numbers had appeared, he was with such additional falsehoods as the most savage taken up for a libel, and is now either chained to hostility could supply, and printed in a book, to a wheelbarrow on the Albany road, or rotting in which Anthony thought fit to prefix his name. the provincial jail.
It was now that I first found a fair opportunity I take some little credit to myself for having for dragging this pest before the public, and setting driven this pernicious pest out of the society upon him up to view in his true light. I was not slow which he preyed : I say some little-for, to be canin seizing it, and the immediate consequence was, did, (though I would not have shrunk from any that an action was commenced, or threatened talents in the contest,) the warfare with Anthony against every publisher of the Baviad.
was finished ere well begun. Short and slight as If we did not know the horror which these obscure it was, however, it furnishes an important lesson. reptiles, who fatten on the filthy dregs of slander Those general slanderers, those bugbears of a timid and obscenity, feel at being forced into day, we public, are as sneaking as they are insolent, as weak might be justly surprised that a man who lived by as they are wicked.—Resist them, and like the violating the law should have recourse to it for devil, to use a sacred expression, “ Resist them, protection; that a common libeller, who spared no and they will flee from you." rank nor condition, should cry out on the license of the times, and solicit pity and redress from that community, almost every individual of which he
THE BAVIAD; had wantonly and wickedly insulted.
The first, and, indeed, the only trial that came on, was that of Mr. Faulder, (a name not often coupled with that of a dealer in libels,) who was
Impune ergo mihi recitaverit ille SONETTAS, not only acquitted, but, by a verdict of his peers,
Hic ELEGOS. declared to have been unjustly put in a state of accusation.
P. When I look round on man, and find how vain Mr. Garrow was furnished with a number of ex. His passions tracts from Anthony's multifarious productions. I
F. Save me from this canting strain! lamented at first, that the impatient indignation of Why, who will read it ? the jury at the plaintiff's baseness, coinciding with
P. This, my friend, to me that of the upright judge who presided, stopped him F. None, by my life. short, and prevented their being read. But I am
P. What! none? Sure, two or threenow satisfied with the interruption. It is better that F. No, no; not one. 'Tis sad ; butsuch a collection of slander, and obscenity, and
P.“ Sad, but !"-Why? treason, and impiety, should moulder in the obscu Pity is insult here. I care not, I, rity 10 which its ineffuble stupidity has con- | Though Boswell,* of a song and supper vain, demned it, than that it should be brought forward to the reprobation and abhorrence of the public.
* Cui non dictus Hylas ? And who has not heard of Mr. Erskine, who did every thing for his client James Boswell, Esq.? All the world knows (for all the which could be expected from his integrity and world has it under his own hand) that he composed a abilities, applied in the “next ensuing term” for a BALLAD in honour of Mr. Pitt, with very little assistance new trial.-I have forgotten the motives for this from Dr. Trusler, and less from Mr. Dibdin; which he application, but it was resisted by Lord Kenyon; produced, to the utter confusion of the Foxites, and sang and chiefly on the ground of the marked indignation thanks to the scombri, et quicquid ineptis amicitur chartis,
at the lord mayor's table. This important “ slate paper,' shown by the jory at the plaintiff's infamous con- I have not been able to procure; but the terror and disduct and character, and that, even before Mr. may which it occasioned among the enemy, with a Garrow had fully entered into them,
variety of other circumstances highly necessary to be To finish Anthony's history.-His occupation was known, may be gathered from the following letter: now gone. As a minister of malevolence he was
“ To the Conductor of the World. no longer worth hiring ; and as a dispenser of fame, no longer worth feeding. Thus abandoned, with with my State Ballad, “the Grocer of London,' and they
“Sir,-The wasps of opposition have been very busy out meat and without money, he applied to a chari. are welcome. Pray let them know that I am vain of a table institution for a few guineas, with which he hasty composition which has procured me large draughts shipped himself off for America,
of that popular applause in which I delight. Let me add, -Leonum
that there was certainly no servility on my part; for I Arida nutrix.
publicly declared in Guildhall, between the encores, But he was even here too late ; that country had ungratefully; but that, from his great merit as a minister,
that this same Grocer had treated me arrogantly and discovered, some time before Anthony reached it, I was compelled to support him!' that receiving into its bosom the refuse and offal " The time will come when I shall have a proper oppor. of every clime, and seemingly for no other reason tunity to show, that in one instance, at least, the man
" JAM. BOS." but because they were so, was neither the way to has wanted wisdomgrow rich nor respectable. Anthony had, therefore, Atqui vultus erat multa et præclara minantis ! no congratulatory addresses presented to him on
Poor Bozzy! But I too threaten.-And is there nee his arrival, but was left, with hundreds of his poor l of thy example, then, to convince us that on