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burning lava, and of course are found in an incomplete state ;

they turned on pivots, and were fastened by bolts which hung PRIVATE HOUSES.

upon chains. Bedsteads are found, made both of wood and HOMER, in his " Odyssey," informs us that the houses and even iron ; but their beds were made generally of carpets and vests, the palaces of ancient Greece were constructed of wood; and spread upon the ground. The articles of household furniture among others he particularly describes that of Ulysses, at Ithaca. and convenience found in these remarkable ruins are utensils of It is stated that the private houses of the early Romans were every kind in silver, brass, stone, and earthenware, with vases small, and that the doors were left unclosed during the principal of every size and adapted to every use; trumpets, bells, gridmeal. As wealth and luxury increased, the size of their houses irons, colanders, saucepans (some lined with silver), kettles, became so great as to accommodato, in no very extraordinary ladles, moulds for jelly or pastry, urns for keeping water hot on cases, no less than four hundred slaves under a single roof. The the principle of the modern tea-urn, horn-lanterns, spits, and, height of private houses at Rome was restricted by the Emperor in fact, every article of kitchen or other furniture used by us, Augustus to seventy feet; but the irregularity of the city be except forks; chains, bolts, scourges, dice (some said to be came so great, that in one sense its conflagration by Nero turned loaded); a complete toilet, with combs, thimbles, rings, paint, out a public good. For, being passionately fond of building, pins, earrings, pearls, etc. But for more enlarged details, we this made way for his architectural plans, and rendered Rome must refer to the work of Sir William Gell and J. P. Gandy, afterwards a regular and splendid city. Notwithstanding these entitled “Pompeiana,” in which there is given a detailed account improvements, there was a great want of conveniences in the of the excavated houses of Pompeii. private architecture of the Romans. There was a general ab The excavated towns above mentioned being small, furnished sence of chimneys and of windows; and the only light received specimens chiefly of houses inhabited by Romans of the middle in the rooms was through an aperture formed in or over the and lower classes. At Rome itself, the excavations of the villa door. In these respects, therefore, they were little removed Negroni have made us acquainted with the nature of purely from the rude cottages of the poor still to be seen in the remote Roman houses, and of the higher class. To this may be added parts of our own country. One reason for the neglect of com- the following description, by himself, of the winter residence of fort in their private dwellings was, that they were not a do- Pliny the Younger, at Laurentinum, situated at the distance of mesticated people; they lived in public and for the public, and seventeen miles from Rome, which gives us a more distinct contheir society was to be found in the Forum and public porticoes. ception of the villa of a wealthy nobleman of that city:A military people are sure to be thus circumstanced; and France, “My villa is large enough to afford all desirable accommodaat least in Paris since the first revolution, has presented a simi- tion without being extensive. The porch before it is plain, but lar spectacle to the observer. Her inhabitants live in cafés, and not mean, through which you enter a portico in the form of the in clubs or societies, but not at home.

letter D, 'which includes a small but agreeable area. This The arrangement of ancient houses greatly differed from the affords a very commodious retreat in bad weather, not only as modern in the formation of their internal courts. These were it is enclosed with windows, but particularly as it is sheltered usually constructed so that each was surrounded by apartments by an extraordinary projection of roof. From the middle of which, when lighted from within, prevented the domestic con- this portico you pass into an inward court, extremely pleasant, cerns of the family from being overlooked by any one not and thence into a handsome hall, which runs out towards the included within the walls. From a passage in Plautus, it does sea. On every side of this hall there are either folding-doors not appear that this construction always answered the purpose ; or windows equally large, by which means you have a view and in Seneca mention is made of the annoyance to which the from the front and the two sides, as it were, of three different neighbours were subject from the disorderly conduct of those seas; from the back you see the middle of the court, the portico, persons who changed night into day by indulging in the false and area; and by another view you look through the portico refinement and late hours of the age in which he lived. In into the porch, whence the prospect is terminated by the woods the Roman houses, also, there appears to have been, after the and mountains which are seen at a distance. On the left-hand Eastern fashion, a remote or inner court for the apartments of side of this hall, somewhat farther from the sea, lies a large the females, accessible only by an outer court for those of the drawing-room, and beyond that a second of a smaller size, which males, and of the servants. The information conveyed to us in has one window to the rising and another to the setting sun. the works of Vitruvius has received singular illustration and The angle which the projection forms with this drawing-room confirmation within a period less than a century, from the exca- retains and increases the warmth of the sun; and hither my vations at Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabia, cities which were family retreat in winter to perform their exercises. Contiguous overwhelmed by a tremendous eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, to this is a room forming the segment of a circle, the windows and which contained houses built and inhabited by Romans of which are so placed as to receive the sun the whole day; in belonging to the age of Vitruvius. These excavations exhibit the walls are contained a set of cases, which hold a collection of curiously paved streets, having the tracks of carriage-wheels such authors whose works can never be read too often. Thence marked on them, and houses built of brick and rubble-work put you pass into a bed-chamber through a passage which, being together with mortar, all the materials being of very inferior boarded, and suspended over a stove which runs underneath, quality, except the interior coating of plaster, to which they tempers the heat, which it receives and conveys to all parts of appear to have been chiefly indebted for their durability. This this room. The remainder of this side of the house is approplaster was composed of lime and pounded marble, a substitute priated to the use of my slaves and freedmon; but most of the for stucco, and by its use a perfectly smooth and polished sur. apartments are neat enough to receive any of my friends. In face was obtained, nearly as hard as marble. With this kind of the opposite wing is a room ornamented in a very elegant tasto; stucco the smallest apartments at Pompeii are found to be next to which lies another room, which, though large for a lined; and this lining is painted with various and brilliant parlour, makes but a moderate dining-room. Beyond is a bedcolours, and embellished with subjects either in the centre or at chamber, together with its ante-chamber, the height of which equal distances, like panels. Painted imitations of variegated renders it cool in summer, as its being sheltered on all sides marbles, forming, perhaps, a species of scagliola, also decorate from the winds makes it warm in winter. To this apartment the walls of their houses. Few blocks of real marble are found, another of the same sort is joined by a common wall. From except in monuments and public buildings; though, in imitation thence you enter into the grand and spacious cooling-room beof the wealthy Romans, the Pompeians inserted pieces or slabs longing to the bath, from the

opposite walls of which two round of this material in their walls, and employed art to give them basins project, sufficiently large to swim in. Contiguous to this higher tints than those they possessed by nature. They also is the perfuming-room, then the sweating-room, and next to that discovered a method of veining slabs with gold; and leaves of the furnace which conveys the heat to the baths. Adjoining this metal covering the beams, walls, and even roofs of the are the two little bathing-rooms, fitted up in an elegant rather houses, were introduced in great profusion. They covered their than a costly manner. At the other end is a second turret, in floors with cement, in which small pieces of marble or coloured which

is a room that receives the rising and setting sun. Behind stones were regularly embedded in geometrical forms; and in this is a large repository, near to which is a gallery of curiositheir best rooms they used mosaic (inlaid work) with ornamented ties, and underneath is a spacious dining-room. It looks upon margins and a device in the centre. The doors of their houses, the garden and the ride which surrounds the garden. Between being formed of wood, have been reduced to charcoal by the the garden and this ride is a banqueting-room. Two apart

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ments run round the back of it, the windows of which look upon kind of architecture ; and there are some also in Germany and the entrance to the villa, and into a pleasant kitchen-garden. Italy. In the thirteenth century the Gothic style was used as From thence an enclosed portico extends, which, by its great much in private as in monumental or public architecture. In length, you might suppose erected for the use of the public. It the town of St. Yrieix there is a very fine house built in this has a range of windows on each side, but on that which looks style; and others are found at Montpazier, in the department of towards the sea they are double the number of those next the the Dordogne. Rural constructions, farms, and granges are garden. Before this portico lies a terrace, perfumed with violets. : found at Meslay in Touraine, and near Coulommiers. Both in On the upper end of the terrace and portico stands a detached the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries wooden houses were combuilding in the garden, which I call my favourite ; and, indeed, mon all over Europe. In the accompanying illustration is a it is particularly so, having been erected by myself. It contains representation of one of these, of which many specimens may be a very warm winter room, one side of which looks upon the seen in England. The storeys of these houses were executed in terrace, the other has a view of the sea, and both lie exposed corbel, that is, projecting one over the other—an arrangement to the sun. Through the folding-doors you see the opposite by which the upper rooms were enlarged, but which rendered chamber, and from the window is a prospect of the enclosed the lower storeys unwholesome, the light and the air being preportico. On that side next

vented from entering freely the sea, and opposite the mid

into the rooms they contained. dle wall, stands a little ele.

This system of projecting gant recess, which, by means

storeys is proved to be of of glass doors and a curtain,

Oriental origin, from the cir. is either laid open to the ad.

cumstance that it did not joining room or separated

make its appearance in from it. Adjoining to this is

Europe until after the time a bed-chamber, which neither

of the Crusades. This systhe voice of the servants, nor

tem, which was proper in the murmuring of the sea,

the East, for defending the nor even the roaring of a tem

lower part of the house from pest can reach. This pro

the light and heat of the found tranquillity is occa

sun, was absurd in climates sioned by a passage which 6 00000

where these were always wel. separates the wall of the

comed as delightful visitors. chamber from the garden ;

After the thirteenth century and thus by that intervening

houses were constructed so space every noise is excluded.

that the gable-end of the Annexed to this is a small

roof fronted the street;

and stove-room, which, by open

in the Middle Ages "to have ing a little window, warms

the gable to the street" inthe bed-chamber to the de

dicated the right of citizengree of heat required. Be

ship. Built without a reguyond this lie a chamber and

lar plan, these houses were, ante-chamber, which enjoy

owing to the arrangement of the sun, though obliquely,

the windows, both dark and from the time it rises till the

inconvenient within ; the afternoon."

stairs were constructed outThe houses of princes and

side, and in front of the the palaces of emperors occu

building; and in the recesses pied a great extent; and be

thus formed, turrets were sides baths, gymnasiums, and

built, which in the fifteenti: gardens, they had sometimes

century were greatly multiattached to them a basilica,

plied, and added to their de a theatre, or a circus. Be

coration. Wooden façades fore the establishment of the

were generally more deco Roman dominion in Gaul,

rated than those constructed the inhabitants, according to

of stone; the posts, the beams Vitruvius, lived in huts of a

and the panels were covered cylindrical form, covered with

GABLED HOUSES OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. with a profusion of sculp shingle or thatch; and in Nor

ture in wood; the roofs were mandy many vestiges of these are still to be found. The Romans , decorated with elegant crests and graceful spires, surmounted gave to those people whom they conquered their religion, laws, with whimsical weather-vanes. During the Renaissance period and customs ; and the Gauls then built their houses like those the outward appearance of houses, as well as their interna of Rome. Numerous villas or country-houses, and rural en- , accommodations, were greatly improved; the façades becam gineering residences, were to be seen in Gaul; many of these more regular, and wood more rare; and when used, it wa houses, as well as those built in towns, were constructed of wood mixed with brick and stone. From this period, sculpture placed on foundations of stone. Erected in a climate different, were spread over the fronts of houses with less profusion, an from that of Italy, the Gallo-Roman houses, especially in the with more taste. There are many specimens of houses buil northern parts, were warmed by subterranean flues, called hypo- ' in the Renaissance style, in France, Germany, and Italy, causts. During the first ages of the monarchy, houses in Gaul : well as in England. The ancient towns of Rouen and More or France were made of wood, exactly similar to those of the in France, furnish some of the finest examples. From that tim Roman period. In a description of the palace of Attila, given to the present day, private architecture has extensively in by the Byzantine historians, some valuable information is to be proved; the outward appearance of our houses has become le found on this subject. Some houses in stone, erected during fantastical, and the interior arrangements more convenien the Roman period, are still to be found in France, with façades Since the mediæval period the improvements in private edifice very similar to those of modern erection. In the towns of the both in decoration and adaptation to the comfort of human lif south, and in the centre of France, such as Nismes, Perigueux, have been considerable ; but the progress of domestic archite Metz, and Cluny, there remain some ancient specimens of this ture in England will be traced in future lessons.

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Precession of the Equinoxes Copyhold, Enclosure, and Props. XIII.-XX. (Euc. I.

Nutation Simple Equations - Solstitial

229 18, 55, 109

Tithe Commission


180 Solution of Problems 155 Points — Colures — Lati Ecclesiastical Commission . 297

XXI.-XXVIII (Euc. tude and Longitude-AltMiscellaneous Problems in

298 Emigration Office

I. 1-32)

270 azimuth

182, 214 Simple Equations Instrument

298 The Lunacy Commission


XXXVI. Problems with the Globes 401 The Mint Involution, or Raising of

(Euc. I. 1-40) 309 Powers

National Debt Office . 298

XXXVII. - XLIV. 246 BOOKKEEPING, LESSONS IN: Binomial Theorem 232

Patent Office


(Euo. I. 1448) 398 Two Simple Equations

The Journal
6, 66 Paymaster General's Office. 364

Unknown Quantities

67, 138, 202
The Ledger

Record Office

How Generated - Different Three Unknown Quantities 346

Foreign Trade

236, 291
General Register Office 364

Problems in Two, Three,

Cash Book.

Science and Art Department 364

and Non - conductorsor more Unknown Quan

BOTANY, LESSONS IN: COMMERCE, NATURAL HIS Pith Ball and Gold Leaf tities ., 375, 410


Electroscopes CVI. Thymelaced or Daph''The Key to the Exercises given nads

Induction - Torsion Elec15 Introductory

145 in any Lesson in Algebra will

trometer-Distribution of CVII. Loranthaceæ

15 1. What is meant by Raw be found at the end of the CVIII. Hydnoraceæ, Rafile

Produce, etc. .

145 Electricity on a Surface . 175 next Lesson.

siaceæ, Cytinacea, Apo

II. Our National Home : Cylinder-Electrical Machine danthacem, and Balanoits Climate, Soil, and Con.

-- Plate Machine - Armphoracea ABCHITECTURE,LESSONS IN:

strong's Hydro-Electric 16 sequences resulting there

209 CIX. Nepenthaceæ, or Ne

from, etc.


193 Domestic Architecture in


Illuminating Effects — In

III. The Effect of Geology England. cx. Papayacer, or Papayads 27

on the Industry of the

terrupted Conductors

Leyden Jar
British People 225, 257, 289

273 CXI. Begoniace, or BegoARITHMETIC, LESSONS IN : niads

Spotted Jar-Jar with mov

28 IV. The United KingdomMiscellaneous Examples 15

able Coatings – Leyden CXII. Euphorbiace, or

Ireland - Raw Produce,

Pane-Electric Pendulum The Metric System. 69 Spurgeworts

Mineral, Vegetable, Ani.

mal CXIII. Cannabinacex, or


Battery – Electrome* The Key to the Exercises given

ters-Harris's Unit JarHempworts


V. The United Kingdomin any Lesson in Arithmetic


Effects of Shock
CXIV. Loganiaceæ


Great Britain-Raw Prowill be found at the end of

Electrified Pith Balls
CXV. Apocynaceæ, or Dog-

duce, Mineral, Vegetable, the next Lesson.



Dancing Figures – Elecon Endogenous


VI. British Fisheries . 385

tric Bells – Effects of a Plants

Point - Electric Aura

135 VII. European Analogues Objects and Early History CXVII. Cyperaceæ, or Sedge

of Great Britain

Electric Flyer-Lichten.

386 of the Science - Early Tribe

berg's Figures-Chemical

137 Astronomers : Thales, CXVIII. Juncaceæ


COMPARATIVE ANATOMY : Effects-Electrophorus . 369 Hipparchus, Ptolemy. 17

Araceæ, the Bullrush and Pteropoda-Cephalopoda 39 FRENCH, LESSONS IN: Early Astronomical Instru

the Arum Tribe
137 Vertebrata-Fishes

104 ments - History of the

XCIX. Examples illustraCXIX. Palmaceæ, or the Amphibia-Reptilia Science (continued)--Co

ting the various Uses of Palm Tribe 137 Birds


the Principal Conjuncpernicus and his System CXX. Cryptogamic Plants . 232 Mammalia


21 -Tycho Brahe-Kepler. 81

CXXI. Mosses 232, 303, 367 Mammalia-ClassificationHistory of the Science (con

C. A List of the usual AbConclusion

404 tinued)-Kepler's Second CHEMISTRY, LESSONS IN :

breviations employed in and Third Laws-Galileo




42 -Invention of the TeleTesting, etc,

Latin Stems

35 PART II. FRENCH GRAMMAR : scope-Newton-Law of

Organic Chemistry

French Stems
86 Introduction.

74 Universal Gravitation 158 The Components of the Ani.

Diverse Stems

$S 1. Parts of Speech 74 Results of Newton's Laws

mal Frame

The Celtic Element


2. Cases of Nouns - Foundation of the Milk The Excretions PART II. INFLECTION :

3. The Noun or SubRoyal Observatory Food - Vegetable Com


Nouns, their Origin and Flamsteed-Halley-Cal.



4. Gender of Nouns culation of Orbit of

309 The Articles


5. Rules for determinComets-Bradley-Bode's Alcohol and its Derivations 379 Gender

348, 411

ing the Gender by Law-Discoveries of Her.



the Meaning 74 schel 212 CIVIL SERVICE PAPERS :

6. Rules for determinGeneral Appearance of the Introduction


ing the Gender by Heavens in Different Lati Treasury


the Termination 75, 115 tudes — Meridian - Pole

Home Office
46 Introduction.


7. Nouns Masculine in Star-Great and Little Foreign Office

46 Literature in England be

one acceptation and Bear-Planets. 279 Colonial Office

fore the Age of Chaucer . 117

Feminine in another 115 The Sun and Moon-Mô. The Admiralty


Chaucer and his Times 148, 8. Formation of the tions of the Earth-Its Audit Office

196, 253
Plural of Nouns

116 Figure-Flattening at the India Office

. 170 The “ Canterbury Tales" 253

9. Plural of Compound Poles - Proofs that the Duchy of Lancaster Office . 170

From the Death of Chaucer


116 Earth is Round - How

Poor Law Commission 170 to the Elizabethan Period 299 10. Nouns which have supported in Space - R2 Board of Trade .

The Elizabethan Age

no Plural

116 tional and Sensible HoriWoods and Forests


351 .1. Nouns which have ZODS 337 Office of Works . . 170 The Elizabethan Age

no Singular in the Dip of the Horizon-Effects War Office.

. 171


sense here given 166 of the Atmosphere - Re Privy Council Office

12. Proper Names fraction-Twilight-Great British Museum.


13. The Article . 166 and Small Circles-Equi Charity Commission 229 Props. I.-IV. (Euc. I. 1-8) 47 14-1. The Adjective

. 166 noctial - Ecliptic-Decli Civil Service Commission 229

VI.-XII. (Euc. I.

14-2. Qualifying Adjecnation-Right Ascension 382 Houses of Parliament 229




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