Imágenes de páginas

exist, and there are, moreover, cross relations which it is im. sistent with animal organism. This consideration led to a fresh possible to represent by such a diagram; but the reader may study of the so-called wheel-animalcules. It is almost needless gather from it some idea of the nature of the relations, and to remark that the separate cilia were too small for their motions how impossible it to follow them in a continuous descrip. to be distinctly traced, otherwise the mistake could never have tion of the animal kingdom.

occurred. It is now supposed that the successive action of the Obviously, if a writer were to pursue any one of the lines cilia gives rise to an optical illusion, by which the appearance indicated, describing in order the animals which successively of rotation is maintained, while the organ on which the cilia is come under his notice on that line, he would be led further situated remains stationary. This supposition is rendered almost and further from the other lines, and he must pursue his course a certainty by observing the same motion in those nearly-allied until he has arrived at the highest animal of the branch creatures, members of the same class, whose discs are not circular, which he has been ascending; and then, like an Alpine traveller but divided into lobes. In these species it could be seen that the who has gained the summit of a peak, he will have to look lobes did not participate in the revolutions. The way in which around at similar elevations, between which and his own posi- this optical illusion is effected will be best seen by reference tion there is no stepping-stone. Thus he must, of necessity, to the illustration (Fig. VII.). From this it may be seen that if retrace his steps to the lower level, from which another ascend the cilia are deflected from the perpendicular only in one direction, ing path takes its rise.

and that a number of these act together, so as to cross one Another course, the one we have adopted, is to break off another while the down-stroke is given, it will give rise to a whenever a gap in the series occurs, and look around to see number of dark points where the crossing occurs, which points, that we are not leaving behind us any group of animals of a by the successive action of each cilium in the series, will seem similar or lower grade of structure, and if we are in danger of to pass rapidly round the disc, while, since each returns to its doing so, to return at once to the description of the neglected erect position separately and slowly, the eye cannot trace their group. We are the more reconciled to this method of procedure, motion. This method of explanation is rendered more probable because the relations of the classes to one another are so far by the fact that these aquatic creatures are usually examined from being determined, that each independent author has a under the microscope by means of transmitted light, and hence different arrangement.

anything which cuts off the rays of light at a particular point It will be seen by the diagram that, while the classes Cælen. will catch the eye and be followed by it. terata, Echinodermata, Annelida, and Myriapoda seem to follow These cilia are found so very generally throughout the range of one another in a natural succession, leading up to the Insecta— the animal series--they are placed on such different parts of anithat order which, of all others in the articulate sab-kingdom, mals, and applied to such different purposes—that it is as well is perhaps the highest and most wonderfully constituted—the to give some little time to the consideration of them. We have Rotatoria seem to start in a rather loose relationship with the already had occasion to mention them as covering the body of Protozoa, and to lead up towards the Crustacea, a class which, some Infusoria, and being applied to locomotion. They are as represented by its higher orders, is almost as complicated in also found on the inner (as well as the outer) wall of the Cælenstructure as the Insecta, but whose lower orders are very much terata, and there cause a circulation of the fluid in the stomach. loss organised. It would seem also as though the great sub. They are set on the combs of the Ctenophora, or bands on the kingdom of the Mollusca is connected to the Articulates through larvæ of the Echinodermata, and in these situations are swim. their lowest class, the Polyzoa, and the class which we now have ming organs. We mentioned them also as set on the tufts of to describe.

vessels called gills in the Annelids, and we shall find them again The Rotatoria were first classed with the Infusoria by Ehren. on the plate-like gills of Lamellibranchiata, and in these positions berg. This classification was not to be wondered at, as all the they cause a change in the external water, and so subserve the rotary animals are microscopic, and they are obtained from function of respiration. In the human subject they cover the infusions of vegetable or animal substances in water. Their membrane of the nasal chambers, the trachea, and the tubes outward appearance is also not unlike tho higher orders of the leading to the lungs, and are continually employed to bring up Protozoa, and they move about by the same means as many of the mucous which would else choke the passages. In all these these do—that is, by means of the vibrations of closely-set, fine, cases, and in a thousand more which might be mentioned, their short, delicate hairs, called cilia. These cilia are so named action, though ied to different purposes, is essentially the from the Latin cilium,“ an eye-lash.” As these are the very Their motion always creates an appearance of wares minute organs of animals of less than tooth of an inch in length, moving along in one definite direction, and never returning. It it may be well conceived that the name cüia has relation to the is very easy to attribute motion to ciliary action, and, of course, form, and not to the size of the organs. The cilia in the Rotatoria, if the action be capable of driving liquid over the surface, it is instead of being scattered all over the surface of the animal, as also able to move the surface upon which the cilia are set, and in Paramecium (a Protozoon), or in the Turbellaria, are confined the animal with it when that animal floats in liquid ; but it is to flat, convex lobes, situated round or near the month, whose not an easy thing to explain the method of this action. When edges they fringe. When the animal fixes itself, the motion of we say that the circulation in sponges is maintained by the these lashes brings food to its mouth by causing currents of ciliated chambers, the cilia of which whip the water in one water to pass towards it; and when it relaxes its hold, then the direction, we are repeating what a multitude of writers havə samo motion causes it to progress through the water much in said before us, but we by no means explain the motion. If a the same way as a screw-steamer is propelled. Some of these switch be passed violently backwards and forwards through air animals have the lobes all united into one circular disc, and as or water, it creates a commotion, but it has no tendency to the motion of the cilia is so ordered as to cause the appearance move the air or water, or the hand which holds it, in any de of a number of successive waves, following one another round and finite direction. How, then, do these minute switches effect round the circle, it was once thought that the disc was a kind of their purpose ? Why does not the effect of the motion in ona cogged wheel whirling rapidly about a fixed axle. Hence the direction exactly counterbalance the effect of the motion in the name Rotifera, or wheel-bearing animals, was given to them. other? The writer conceives the following to be the explanaIf this had been the right explanation of the motion, it would tion, for which the reader will be in some measure prepared by have furnished an instance of a locomotive apparatus met with the remarks already made on the ciliary action in the Rotatoria nowhere else in the whole animal kingdom. A little reflection Suppose we conceive of a number of upright rods set on a menconcerning this contrivance led somo naturalists to doubt whether brane in a line corresponding to the line of the resulting wards, it really existed. Of course it is essential to the mechanical and moving in a direction at right angles to this, or in the device which we call a wheel that it should be entirely discon- direction of the waves caused by them. "If one cilium or rod nected with the axle upon which it plays, otherwise it could act alone, being rapidly bronght down, the liquid will be thrown not revolve; and yet it is essential that all animal structures, off from its sides to the right and left, the more obliquely in especially to those employed in locomotive actions, that there proportion to the rapidity of its motion. It will make its way should be an organic communication between them and the by splitting the Auid, which, being thrown off laterally

, wil organs of nutrition, by means of which liquids can be sent to finally unite behind

it. But suppose the rods on each side of supply the waste caused by vital actions. This liquid must also this single rod are in motion in a parallel direction at the 54.710 be sent in such a way as not to be lost or wasted in the transit. time, then it comes in contact, not with stagnant

water, bus It would seem, then, that the mechanism of the wheel is incon. with the conjoined stream thrown off by these,

which furnishes 3



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greater resistance than if it acted alone. The water thus im- | untouched the problem of how the cilia themselves are set in pinging on the central rod will be prevented from readily uniting motion. The cilia of the Rotatoria seem to differ from those behind the other two; so that the vacuum will be filled up, not of most other animals in being under the control of the will of by the water which has passed through the interstices of the the animal. line of rods, but by fresh water which flows in from behind. In When a better appreciation of the action of the ciliary fringes other words, when the cilium acts alone, the resistance it meets of these animals was attained the name Rotifera (Wheel-bearing with is in proportion to the section of the rod itself; but when animalcules) was changed into Rotatoria, or rotary animals. it acts with its neighbours, the resistance is little short of being Under this name they have been examined, and other details proportional, not to the section of the several rods, but to them of their structure show them to be much more highly organised and the whole space which lies between them. This speculation than the simple Protozoa, which inhabit the same waters, feed seems to be confirmed by experiment; for if a sheet of wire upon similar food, and are moved by a like agency. They

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JULUS, SHOWING THE LEGS ON ONE SIDE. VI. NOTOMATA CENTRURA. VII. SCHEME SHOWING THE NATURE OF THE ROTARY ILLUSION. Refs. to Nos, in Figs.-V. 1, spiracle. VI. 1, ciliated disc; 2, gizzard ; 3, stomach ; 4, water-vascular system; 5, ovum; 6, forceps.

gauze be passed rapidly enough through the water, it is resisted have a definite alimentary canal, complete from end to end, and in with almost as great force as if it were not perforated. When some this canal is of very complex structure. The animals are fine sand is thrown out of a balloon in rapid descent, it appears transparent, and admit of the examination of their internal to fly violently upward, although the resistance opposed by the organs while alive ; and to aid in this examination, Ehrenberg atmosphere to each particle in relation to its weight is small placed some indigo, in an extremely fine state of division, into as compared to that offered by the balloon in proportion to its the water where they were. He had the satisfaction of seeing weight. According to this theory, then, a number of cilia are the little opaque particles moved by the ciliary currents, depressed in concert and so create a wave, and only rise slowly swallowed, and pass through the whole length of the alimen. and separately after the wave has passed on, and so assume tary canal, and thus make it more distinct. Immediately below an erect posture ready to propel a fresh wave at a considerable the gullet, in some (as in the Notomata of our illustration), is distance from the one which preceded it. This conforms well an enlarged chamber, furnished with a tooth apparatus, which to the appearance created by the cilia both when they are used from its internal position is called a gizzard. In the Notomata to pass liquid over their surface, and when they are employed the dental apparatus consists of two teeth, one situated on each as locomotive organs. This partial explanation leaves entirely side of a central fixed tooth, and playing upon it as the hammers of two blacksmiths fall on an anvil. Below the gizzard is a invisiblo when ono is looking down on to the back of tho animal. globular or elongated stomach, which is succeeded in some The generative organs open on the under side of the fore-part species by a narrow intestine, but in the ono before us ends at of the body, and it feeds on decaying wood. once in a cloaca, from which the exit is at the forked tail end The other order has the Scolopendra for its type. The transof the animal. Round glands, supposed to represent the liver, verse section of this animal is of oblong form, and exhibits a empty themselves into the fore-part of the stomach. From the flattened structurc; the broad, horny back and belly plates cloaca two winding ducts pass up, one on each side of these, and being joined to one another on each side by leathery side-pieces, doubtless represent the water-vascular system which introduces on which the limbs are set, and the breathing-holes open. The aërated water from the outside. On these ducts, fastened by jaws of this creature are most formidable, and a poison-bag short stalks, are some little button-like organs, which are kept within the body sends a very noxious secretion by a duct to the in rapid vibration; but their use is not known. The outer end of the fang. These creatures are carnivorous, and rapid wall of the animal is often of an inflexible or littlo flexiblo in their movements, and their generative organs open at the material, which may be called a shell. This preserves the end of the body, being in this respect, as in all others, more flask-shaped body in its ordinary dimensions, and gives origin to like the insects than the Julidæ. muscles which run to, and can retract into the shell, the disc at one end of the body, and also the forceps by which the animal

LESSONS IN GERMAN.--XXXIII. attaches itself at the other end. The hind-part of these creatures is usually divided into rings, which, together with the struc

SECTION LXIV.–VARIOUS IDIOMS (continued). ture of the stomach, show an approach to the Crustacean type. Umhin (around there) is used only in connection with fönnen, as :

We must content ourselves with this short notice of the Ich konnte nicht umhin, es ihm zu sagen, I could not (get) around, i.e., I Rotatoria, and leaving them, return to the next class, which could not help, or avoid, telling it to him. Ich habe nicht umbin follows directly to the Annelids in the upward direction. If we gefonnt, es zu thun, I could not help doing it, I could not but do it. wished to give to & sea-worm the powers of living in the air, 1. Spazieren (to take a walk, to take an airing) signifies, in and walking on the earth with as little change its outward union with gehen, fahren, reiten, führen, to take a walk, to take the form as possible, we must, in the first place, replace its tufts air in a coach, to ride out, or take the air on horseback, to lead of bristles by limbs which are directed downwards towards the about, or on a walk; as:–Eine Stunto des Tages ausgenommen

, in earth. These limbs must have a hard point, to strike against welcher er seine Schwester spazieren führt, sīpt er beinahe immer an seinem and lay hold upon the unevennesses of the ground; and in order Sdreibtische und sturirt, während sein jüngerer Bruter lieber spazieren geht, that the hold might be maintained while the body is being spazieren reitet, otcr in Gesellschaft einiger Freunde spazieren führt, one bour moved over the point of support, the limb must be jointed. of the day excepted, in which he takes his sister for a walk, he Inflexible levers, with fixed points of application, necessitate is almost always sitting at his writing-desk and studying, while fixed solid and rosisting fulcra and firm structure, from whence his younger brother prefers to go for a walk, to ride on borsethe muscles which wield them may originate. Now the class back, or to take a drive in company with a few friends. Myriapoda, the members of which live in the air, differs from 2. Thun (to do) is in some phrases used impersonally, as :that of the Annelids, as far as their outward appearance and Ef thut nichts, it does or effects nothing, i.e., it is no matter. appendages are concerned, just in the way which these require thut Noth, it is necessary. ments indicate. The outer wall of the body is of a hard, horny 3. Behüte and bewahre, or Gott behüte, Gott bewahre, are often used, substance, which, though not quite so inflexible as tho mail in especially in conversation, to denote aversion, abhorrence, fear, which the insect is encased, is still vastly harder than the etc., and may commonly be rendered, "God forbid.” integument of the worm. The limbs, also, are jointed levers.

VOCABULARY. Besides these advances in structure, the organs of perception are better developed. The feelers stretch in front of the head, Aud būtung, f. culti

Arg, bad.

Hin'wenden (sich), to Tau'nußgebirge, n. the

turn to. and are long and jointed. The eyes differ from those of insects

Taunus in being simplo instead of compound; but there are many

vation, education. Indem', in that, while. tains, a mountain

of them gathered into two clusters on each side of the head. It Behandʻlung, f. treat- Ita’lien, n. Italy. range


Kenntniß, f. know. Rhine. might well be predicted that life in the air would require differences in the organs of respiration quite as marked as those Bemer'fen, to observe. Nic tersinfen, to sink

Beleidigen, to offend, ledge.

Umhin'fönnen. (See in the organs of relation. The tufts of vessels which served


Bewei'sen, to prove. down. as gills to the worms, could not be floated out in the air so as

Unglaublic, incredito expose the contained fluid to its oxygen, and they would be

Bewer'ben (sich), to sue Dynómächtig, weak,

ble. liable to be torn or bruised.

for. Hence respiration is carried on

swooning, fainting Versa'gen, to refuse. upon an entirely different plan, the air being introduced into Blid, m. look, glance. Panzern, to arm with Bor'fäblich, intention

Brüsten (sic), to be a coat of mail. the body, there to act on its fluid, instead of the fluids being


[room. taken to it. In the illustration, we have taken pains to exhibit

proud, to show airs Platte, f. plate, crown Wand, f. wall (of a tho openings in the sides or under the animal, by which the air

Curgast, m. guest (top).

Wenden, to turn. is received into the body; but we intend to leave the full

(under cure). Rennthier, n. reindeer. Wissenschaftlich, scien.

Danfen, to thank. description of these, and of the great system of air-vessels

Schlitten, ni sledge. tifically. which is called the tracheal system, to be described when we

Entflie'ben, to flee. Schnell'igkeit, f. rapi- Zu'bringen, to spend, write of the class Insecta, in which it is more largely developed. Groß thun, to boast, Tatel, m. blame, cen. Zu’trdiglich, advantage

Entwen'den, to purloin dity.

pass away. Another marked difforence between the Myriapoda and the Annelids is exhibited in the circulatory or blood system. This


ous, conducive to. system, instead of being an advance upon that of the worms,

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. seems to be a degradation from it; for instead of a closed Es ist eine vortreffliche Sadyc, fcinc It is an excellent affair to have circuit of vessels which convey the blood in a definite direction, Betürf'nisse zu haben ; oder wenn no necessities; or, if one Cilland never permit it to escape from their bounds, we have only man nun cinmal nicht umhin' not by any means avoid haring a heart stretching along the back of the animal, divided into a fann, ci'nige zu haben, doch we'. some, nevertheless, at least, longitudinal series of compartments by valves which allow the nigstens nicht mehr zu haben, als not to have moro than one is blood to pass towards the head only, while it is received from man schlechterdings haben muß. absolutely obliged to have. the general cavity of the body by slits in the sides of these 68 thut freilich für den Au'genblid It causes pain, indeed, for the compartments. Only a few vessels are given off from the front wche, cine Züch'tigung zu erhal'. moment, to receive a correcpart of the heart to run to the head organs, and the blood ten, die wir nicht vertient' haben ; tion that we have not me is left to find its way back to the heart, not by vessels, but by aber intem' wir uns unsrer lin. rited; but while we remem. soaking through spaces left between the viscera.

schuld crin'nern, lernen wir íonell ber our innocenco, ve soon The class Myriapoda has been divided into two orders, each tas Grlittene vergesi'en.

learn to forget what we have of which is typically represented in the engraving.

The type

suffered. of the lower order is the Julus. Its body is an almost perfect Indem' cr aber alsu getach'te, fiche, While he thus thought, how: cylinder. Each ring of which it is composed bears on its under da erschien' ihm ein Gngel.

ever, behold there appearad surface two pairs of feeble legs, which are so small as to be

an angel unto him.


near the


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Der Zufrie'denc braucht nur ganz The contented (man) needs but 1. Diejenigen, welche zu viel spazieren geben, gewöhnen sich endlich an wenig um glüdlich zu sein.

very little in order to be den Müßiggang. 2. Eine halbe Stunde nach dem Essen spazieren gehen

happy. ist der Gesundheit sehr zuträglich. 3. In Italien fahren Viele mit Maul. Nad Abzug aller Rosten blieb ihm After deduction of all costs, thieren spazieren. 4. Man sieht gewöhnlich mehr Herren spazieren gehen, nichts übrig, als ei'nige Groschen. there remained for him noald spazieren reiten. 5. Die Curgäste in Wiesbaten reiten oft auf Mauls

thing but a few groats. thieren auf die Platte des Taunusgebirges. 6. Reisen zu Fuß sind oft Man wird das Geld schneller los, One gets rid of money faster angenehmer, als zu Wagen oder zu Pierd. 7. Die Larvländer fahren auf als man es vertient',

than one earns it. Schlitten, und betienen sich der Rennthiere, anstatt der Pferde. 8. Gr ver

EXERCISE 124. wandte beinahe fein Auge von seinen Verwandten, die er in so langer Zeit nicht gesehen hatte, und freute sich ihrer Erzählungen. 9. Für diesen jungen Emilie arbeitet jo wenig wie möglich, um die Feinbeit ihrer Hände zu

1. Der Arzt hat mir gerathen, so wenig wie möglich auszugehen. 2. Soldaten haben sich die meisten Officiere bei dem Vencral verwendet. 10. Ich wandte mich in meiner Noth an meine Freunde ; allein, wo ich mich erhalten... 3. Die Kinder sollten jeder Zeit so wenig wie möglich unbc. hinwandte

, sah ich nur gleichgültige Blide. 11. Gr entwandte mir ($ 129. haftigt sein. 4. Er spricht so wenig, um feine Aufmerksamkeit zu erregen. Obs.) meine Uhr und einige andere Gegenstände, ohne daß ich e8 bemerfte. 5. Ferdinand ist ießt sehr wenig zu Hause. 6. Auf der lepten Reise hatte

7. Wollen Sie etwas Fleisch baben? 12. Derjenige, welcher mit seinen Kenntnissen grob thut, beweist damit, das ich ganz wenig Gepäť bei mir.

8. Ja, aber nur ganz wenig. 9. G8 bleibt ihm nichts übrig, als zu er weniger weiß, als er sich brüstet und andere glauben machen will. 13.

10. 8 bleibt nicht Anderes übrig. Sie müssen Sie werden toch nicht (Sect. XLIII. 4) glauben, daß ich Sie vorsäblich betteln, oder zu arbeiten. beleidigt hätte? 14. Gott behüte! ich habe nie so etwas Arges (Sect. ießt handeln. 11. Von all seiner Habe blieb ihm nichts übrig, als ein

12. Diese Rose blieb allein von allen Blumen übrig. 13. XIV. 4) von Ihnen geglaubt und glauben wollen. 15. Sie werden bei Stüd land.

14. Ich fann diese tiesem Ftünen Wetter duty nicht zu Hause bleiben wollen? 16. D bewahre, Fr blieb allein von dem ganzen Regimente übrig.

15. Um seine falschen Freunre los ich babe nicht Lust, einen jo schönen Tag zwischen den vier Wänten meiner traurigen Gedanken nicht los werden. Stube zuzubringen. 17. Go haben sich mehrere um dieses Amt beworben, zu werden, muß man ihnen Geld borgen. 16. Gewähren Sie ihm seine

17. Iekt ging der Spaß von Neuem 108. und zwar (Sect. XLIII. 4) folgende. 18. Ich kann nicht umhin, Ihnen Bitte, damit Sie ihn los werden.

19. Als der Krieg wieder logging, zu sagen, daß mir tiese Behandlung nicht gefällt. 19. Ich kann nicht 18. Der Ralf an der Mauer geht los. umhin, Ihnen recht herzlich zu banten. 20. Als ich auf ten Wolf schicßen zog er mit einem großen Heere in das Felt. 20. Das Gewehr ging los, als

er eß ergreifen wollte. wollte, versagte* mir die Flinte.


1. Tho physician advised my sister to stay at home as much 1. He could not help expressing his censure. 2. Preserve us,

as possible. 2. A teacher should always keep his scholars unO Lord, from sin. 3. I could not help forgiving the wrongs employed as little as possible. 3. The orator spoke with great which I had endured. 4. While he said this he sank down enthusiasm, in order to raise the attention of his auditors. 4. fainting. 5. We shall ride slowly to the park. 6. The queen Most travellers take with them as little luggage as possible. 5. took an airing on horseback yesterday. 7. This merchant boasts Will you have some apples? 6. Thank you, Sir, I have quite of his riches. 8. The Arabian rides on horseback with incredi. enough. 7. Augustus is now very much at home, henco we may ble rapidity. 9. When the knights of olden times rode to war,

go to him. 8. There is nothing left for him but submission to their horses were armed with a coat of mail

. 10. Kings and his desting. 9. I had no other resource left me than to fly from princes are accustomed to take a drive with six horses. 11.

the enemy. 10. Of all his property, nothing was left but a garWhen he could have escaped, his strength failed him. 12. The

den. wood is used for building. 13. He has devoted the greatest of this false friend, then you will get rid of him. 13. Who

11. I cannot get rid of my cold. 12. Grant the request part of his youth to scientific pursuits. 14. Journeys through broke the foot of the tablo ? 14. The servant broke it off, when the Rhine valley are more agreeable on foot than on horseback. she cleaned tho room. 15. Frederick the Great marched at the 15. John leads his sister about the park, while her father rides head of his army to the war. 16. The gun went off accidentally, on horseback.

or he would have shot the hare. SECTION LXV.-VARIOUS IDIOMS--(continued). 20$ (loose, apart, etc.), when combined with verbs, has a variety

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. of significations. Its exact force in any given place is best de

EXERCISE 42 (Vol. I., page 239). termined by the context, as :-lobbinden, to unbind; losgehen, to break out, to go off; losreißen, to tear asunder. Gin Gewehr

1. On this intelligence, the riders urged their horses to greater losbr:nnen, to fire (off) a gun,

speed. 2. The beautiful greenfinch has flown away from the boy. 3. Das Gewehr ist loggegangen, the gun The prospect of a rich reward incited them to rescue the rich noble(went off) discharged (accidentally). Der Streit geht wieder los, man's child. 4. The peasant has collected his field-produce, thrashed the contest is beginning again.

and stored it up. 5. The revengeful man is fond of using the adage, VOCABULARY.

“ Deferred is not revoked." 6. The hermit lives in his cell, separated Auf'mertiamfeit, f. at- Heer, n. host, army.

from the people. 7. The war has destroyed many people, but the Traurig, mournful,

plaguo still more. 8. The sun has set. 9. On the termination of the tention. (borrow. Kalf, m. lime.


war, the king discharged many soldiers. 10. The loadstone attracts Borgen, to lend, to Los'gehen. (See los Uebrig, over, remain iron and lightning. 11. The magnetic needle shows the pilot the Gmilie, f. Emily. above.)


North and the South, 12. The threatenings, as well as the promises, Grreógen, to excite, Losówerden, to free, Ue'brigbleiben, to be in the Bible, indicate the love of God. 13. The copper kettle has at. raise,

disengage one's left, to remain. tracted verdigris. 14. The miller has disposed of his flour. 15. The Gepid', n. baggage,

Un'beschäf'tigt, unem-

father has confined the dog in his room. 16. The merchant praises luggage. Miglich, possible. ployed.

the cloth to his customers. 17. Prayer elevates an afflicted heart. Habe, f. property. Spaß, m. sport, joke. / Ziehen, to draw.

18. The moon ascends behind the chain of mountains, and fills the

earth with her mild light, 19. I get into the wagon, you get out of RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

the wagon, and he mounts the horse. 20. The tired riders dismount

their horses. 21. Will you take me with you when you go to Ger. Der Drang, frei und selbstständig zu Tho desire to be free and inde


22. I do not think you are willing to go with me. sein, ist cinem jeden Menschen pendent is innate in every an'geboren, und ein Icter bestrebt' human being; and this de

EXERCISE 43 (Vol. I., pago 239). fich, tiefen Trang, so viel wie sire every one endeavours as 1. Nach Beendigung des Strieges werten die Soldaten abbezahlt werden. möglich zu befrierrigen.

much as possiblo to satisfy. 2. Ich werte mit Ihrem Bruder zu dem Eremiten gehen, der abgesondert In tesroʻtijden Lintern bleibt frei'. In despotic countries there re- von der Welt lebt. 3. Der Landmann hat die Früchte des Felde eingesam.

finnigen Männern nichts Anfreres mains to free-minded men melt. 4. Die Rürger sind von dem Feinre in der Stadt eingeschlossen. 5. übrig, als entwerter ihre Gesins nothing else, than either to Der Sirieg und die Pest haben schr viele Menschen umgebracht. 6. Der nungen zu verbergen und ihre conceal their sentiments and mute Reiter steigt von seinem Pierte ab. 7. Der Kaufmann hat seinen Gefüb'le zu unterrriid'en, oder die suppress their feelings, or Borrath abgcícßt. 8. Die Sonne geht im Osten auf. 9. Die Sonne geht Wayl zwijajen Sietten und Flucht. the choice between chains zwanzig Minuten nach fünf lihr auf, und geht um halb sieben Uhr unter.

and flight.

10. Sic müssen Ihre Schüler anspornen fleißiger zu sein. 11. Wollen

Sie Ihren Besuch für Morgen aufschieben? 12. Die Magnetnabel zeigt . Would not go off, i.e., missed fre.

nach dem Norten. 13. Der Schüler hat seine Aufgaben abgeschrieben.

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from its pitch, but chiefly from its key-relationship. We agree

with the learned man and skilful teacher Dr. Bryce, of Belfast, RELATION OF NOTES, ETC.

in saying, “ It is by no means intended to say that the power of 1. IN pursuance of the plan of the last Lesson, while our distinguishing the absolute pitch of each note in the standard pupils are continuing their

practice and study of the three chief scale (not including the flats and sharps) with some approach to notes of the scale, we shall “revise" and enlarge our previous accuracy is unattainable ; nor that, when attained, it is useless. Lessons in reference to those points which are capable of being But it ought not to be the first thing attempted: first, because misunderstood, or need to be more fully explained. We must it is not essential either to the perception of melody and har ask the patience of those pupils who have put themselves into mony, or to their execution; and, secondly, because it will be our hands, with all good faith, content to learn one thing at a acquired with far greater ease after the mind has learned to time, for we have to teach many who cannot understand us, feel the relation of the notes of the scale to one another, whatbecause they have misunderstood music before. Docility—that ever the absolute pitch of the individual notes may be.” quality so absolutely necessary to the student of any arranged “It is this relation of the notes to one another which constitutes course of lessons, which develops truth step by step, leads from music. The (pitch] notes F, C, F, A, C, B flat, A, G, form the known to the unknown, from the easy to the difficult—is too melody, not because they are the pitch notes] F, C', A, etc.

, but often forgotten; and, as Dr. Marx says, to punish him for because they are respectively the 1st, 5th, 8th, 3rd, 5th, 4th, neglect of docility, the student loses als certainty of success. 3rd, 2nd of a particular scale. The procf of this is, that the The MOVABLE DOH," on account of the common misappre very same melody is produced by any other notes which stand hension of the first foundations of musical truth, and the false in the same relation, as for example, by G, D, G', B, D, C, B, A, or teachings which are abroad, is a great difficulty with some of by D, 4, D', F sharp, A, G, F sharp, E, which are the 1st, 5th, our pupils. One of them “proceeded very pleasantly as far as 8th, 3rd, 5th, 4th, 3rd, 2nd, in respective scales, and by the fifth Exercise, in which the key-note (or DOH) is G. But no notes whatever that stand in a different relation.” Some that he could not understand.” He says, “In the previous of our readers will understand these remarks better when they exercise the notes DOH, ME, SOH, are placed respectively below see this same phrase (essentially the same, though placed at the line and in the first and second spaces; but in the exercise I different heights in pitch) in the old notation. They will per have mentioned, I find doh on the second line. Why should ceive that the sol-fa syllables, which, having taken their pitch there be that change in the position of the note ? And how is from the key-note, represent thenceforth only relationship of it to be sounded ?" The last question is clearly answered in sound, remain the same in all three cases. And why should the note to Exercise 5—“Take à middle sound of your voice they not? for the tune is essentially the same! for the key-note or Doh.” In the previous exercises a low sound had been taken for DOH. In the first case any middle sound, and in the second any low sound, would have answered the purpose. The reason of the change of doh's position on the staff is, that the staff aims to represent to us height and :d

:d' m

f :m lowness of absolute pitch, as well as key-relationship; and as the foundation-note of key-relationship, which we call now, had before been a low sound of the voice, and at the bottom of the "ladder of pitch," now that this governor of key-relationship (DOH) is to be at a middle pitch of voice, it is necessary that it should be placed higher on the staff.

:d S

f : 2. Another correspondent states his difficulty thus :—"The key-note of one piece not being always the same [in pitch) as that of another, we are not able to recognise, with the sol-fa syllables, the same sounds [in pitch] which we sing to them in other pieces. What I would ask, then, is, whether we are always to sing the same sounds [in pitch] to each syllable, or


f :m merely to guess the sound of the syllable by its position in relation to that immediately preceding ?” Decidedly, you are 4. Once more, let not our friends suppose, with the corre not to sing the sol-fa syllables to the same pitch-sounds in one spondent last named, that it is necessary to " guess" at the tune which they had in a previous tune, unless the key-note sound of the notes, because nou is placed wherever the key. (DOH) is the same pitch in both. For we use the syllables note is. If your Doh were fixed, and were nothing but anto represent, to mind and ear, the key-relationship of notes. other name for the pitch-note c, as in the French method of And we use the well-known letters c!, B, A, G, F, E, D, to repre. solfa-ing, then, indeed, you would have to "guess" at the sent their absolute pitch. We hope presently to show that this sound of the notes. For instance, when you saw BAY, FOU practice of ours is both the oldest and the best. But do not would have to “ guess which of the three RAYS (abovelet our friends suppose that upon any of the common plans of named) it was. But if, on the English plan of solfa-ing, you solfa-ing they can associate a distinct idea of pitch with each make doh the key-note, then Ray is always at one and the place on the staff. Take, for instance, the first place below the same interval from doi, and always produces a corresponding staff. That place may be filled by any one of three perfectly mental effect. And, as it is by this relative position and mental distinct sounds, by D, by D sharp, or by o flat. Now you may effect that notes are most easily recognised and most correctly call these three sounds by the same name-RAY, for instance - sung, you will soon learn to know and to strike the right sound but they are three most distinguishable sounds still. M. Fetis, with a decision and accuracy perfectly unattainable on the other the well-known French writer on music, very truly observes, plan, and without any guessing" at all. As Mr. Lowell that, & sound cannot be altered or substituted for another Mason says, “Ours would be more properly called the imwithout ceasing to exist: do sharp is no longer do. It is a movable Don," for it is immovably fixed as the key-note. mere error so to call it, and it is one of those errors which have The other sou is at all the parts of the scale by turns. tended to render music obscure.” Your syllable RAY, then, 5. We are anxious to carry the perfect satisfaction of our cannot possibly represent a distinct idea of pitch. It can only pupils along with us, and must therefore step aside a moment stand for an indistinct, or, at best, a threefold idea! Hence longer to prove to them, once for all, that the method of solfathe indecision of voice, common among those who pursue the ing with the movable Dou”—especially as distinguished fixed method of solfa-ing.

from the French method imported by Dr. Shattleworth and 3. Neither let our friends imagine that, even if they coula Mr. Hullah—is the oldest, is supported by the best authority

, establish in their minds a fixed association of absolute pitch and is in itself the best for educational purposes. It secme with each place on the staff, in learning to sing at sight, generally admitted that Guido Aretino, the monk of Arezzo, who it is the attainment chiefly to be sought. For, undoubtedly, in the eleventh century invented both the staff and the use we learn to recognise a note by the effect which it produces on of the sol-fa syllables, applied the syllable ut (for which do the mind; and, as was amply proved in our eighth lesson, the has since been substituted) to the key-note. (See the Musical effect of a note on the mind arises not, except in a small degree, Histories of Dr. Burney and Sir J. Hawkins.) Morley, the

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