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The Plantaginaceæ are not banished from any climate, though seed dicotyledonous; embryo straight, in a farinaceous albumen;
they especially inhabit the temperate regions of the northern radicle superior.
hemisphere, principally the Mediterranean region and North The Plumbaginacece are herbs or shrubs, having leaves which
America. Only few species grow in the low countries of the are radical, fasciculated, or alternate, cauline, and ex-stipulate.
torrid zone, although not unfrequent upon the mountains. The flowers are complete, disposed in spike, or panicle, or dense

The root and leaves of the plantains are slightly bitter and involucrum. Calyx monosepalous, tubular, arranged in five
astringent, occasionally a little saline. The long-spiked plantain folds, or else five-partite, persistent. The corolla is composed of
(Plantogo major), of which a representation is given in Fig. 202, | five petals, sometimes free, or nearly free, occasionally aggre-

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and other species, were formerly remedies of great repate in gated, contorted, or imbricated in æstivation. The five stamens the treatment of intermittent fever, but they have now fallen are opposite to the petals; ovary with five carpels, joined by into disuse. The stag-horned plantain (Plantago Coronopus) was their edges into one single cell; ovule reflexed, pendent from formerly employed by the ancients as a remedy for hydrophobia, a funiculus, or slender thread, springing from the lower part but it is only now used in certain parts of Europe as a salad. of the cell; style divided into five stigmas; fruit sometimes

dividing into five valves at its summit, sometimes opening at SECTION LV.-PLUMBAGINACEÆ, OR LEADWORTS.

its base. Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopetalous, A representation of the Statice imbricata, a native cf Tene. or polypetalous ; stamens inserted upon the receptacle of the riffe, is given in Fig. 203. The little plant called thrift, fremonopetalous species, and upon the petals of those which are poly- quently used as an edging instead of box, is a member of this petalous ; ovary unilocular, styles five; ovale solitary, pendent; natural order.


the head of his unfortunate rival? Why does he delight in pardoning

his enemies--even those very men that had deserted him? EXERCISES ON EXPRESSIVE TONE (concluded).

It seems as if he lived the lover of mankind, and fell as the bard The following is an extract from a debate for young speakers, expresses it-vanquished, not so much by the weapons as by the inand forms a useful exercise in elocution :

gratitude of his murderers.

If a combination of the most splendid talents for war with the most XIX. CHARACTER OF JULIUS CÆSAR.

sacred love of peace-of the most illustrious public virtue with the FIRST SPEAKER." Was Cæsar a great man ?"-What revolution has most endearing private worth-of the most unyielding courage with taken place in the first appointed government of the universe--what the most accessible moderation, may constituts a great man, that title new and opposite principle has begun to direct the operations of must be Cæsar's ! nature-what refutation of their long-established precepts has deprived reason of her sceptre, and virtue of her throne, that a character which Second SPEAKER.-No change has taken place in the first appointed forms the noblest theme that ever merit gave to fame, should now government of the universe; the operations of nature acknowledge become a question for debate ?

now the same principle that they did iu the beginning; Reason still No painter of human excellence, if he would draw the features of holds her sceptre, Virtue still fills her throne; and the epithet el that hero's character, need study a favourable light or striking attitude. great does not belovg to Cæsar! In every posture it has majesty; and the lineaments of its beauty are I would lay it down, as an unquestionable position, that the worth prominent in every point of view.

of talents is to be estimated only by the use we make of them. I It is a generally-received opinion, that uncommon circumstances we employ them in the cause of virtuo, their value is great; if wa make uncommon mon : Cæsar was an uncommon man in common cir employ them in the cause of vice, they are less than worthless—they cumstances. The colossal mind commands your admiration, no less are pernicious and vile. Now let us examine Cæsar's taleuts by this in the pirate's captive, than in the victor at Pharsalia. Who but the principle, and we shall find, that neither as an orator nor as a poli. first of his race could have made vassals of his savage masters, mocked tician-neither as a warrior nor as a friend-was Cæsar great them into reverence of a superior nature and threatened, with security, man! the power that held him at its mercy of all the striking incidents If I were asked, “What was the first, the second, and the last pris. of Cæsar's life, had history preserved for us but this single one, it ciple of the virtuous mind ?" I should reply, "It was the love of would have been sufficient to make us fancy all the rest-at least, country." It was the love of parent, brother, friend l-the love of we should have said, “Such a man was born to conquest, and to man ! --the love of honour, virtue, and religion !-the love of every empire !"

good and virtuous deed ! I

say, then, if I were asked, " What was To expatiate on Cæsar's powers of oratory, would only be to add the first, the second, and the last principle of the virtuous mind?" one poor eulogium to the testimony of the first historians. Cicero I should reply, “It was the love of country!" Without it man is himself grants him the palm of almost pre-eminent merit; and seems the basest of his kind !-a selfish, cunning, narrow specnlator!-a at a loss for words to express his admiration of him. His voice was trader in the dearest interests of his species !-- reckless of every tie musical, his delivery energetic, bis language chaste and rich, appro- of nature, sentiment, affection! What was Cæsar's oratory 2-HOW priate and peculiar, And it is well presumed that, had he studied far did it prove him to be actuated by the love of country? It justhe art of public speaking with as much industry as he studied the tified for political interest the invader of his bonour!-- sheltered the art of war, he would have been the first of orators. Quintilian says, incendiary!-abetted treason !-fattered the people into their own he would have been the only inan capable of combating Cicero; but undoing !- assailed the liberties of his country, and bawled into silence granting them to have been equal in ability, what equal contest could every virtuous patriot that struggled to uphold them! He would the timid Cicero-whose nerves fail him, and whose tongue falters have been a greater orator than Cicero! I question the assertion-I when the forum glitters with arms—what equal contest could he have deny that it is correct !-He would have been a greater orator then held with the man whose vigour chastised the Belgæ, and annihilated Cicero! Well !-let it pass—he might have been a greater orator, the Nervii, that maintained their ground till they were hewn to pieces but he never could have been so great a man. Which way boerer on the spot?

he directed his talents, the same inordinate ambition wonld have His abilities as a master of composition were undoubtedly of the led to the same results; and had he devoted himself to the study first order. How admirable is the structure of his Commentaries ! of oratory, his tonguo had produced the same effects as his sword, and What perspicuity and animation are there in the details! You fancy equally desolated the human kingdom. yourself upon the field of action ! You follow the development of his But Cæsar is to be admired as a politician! I do not pretend to plans with the liveliest curiosity! You look on with unwearied at. define the speaker's idea of a politician; but I shall attempt to pat tention, as he fortifies his camp or invests his enemy, or crosses the you in possession of mine. By a politician, I understand a man who impetuous torrent! You behold his legions, as they move forward studies the laws of prudence and of justice as they are applicable to from different points to the line of battle! You bear the shout of the the wise and happy government of a people, and the reciprocal obliga. onset, and the crash of the encounter; and, breathless with suspense, tions of states. Now, how far was Cæsar to be admired as a politician? mark every fluctuation of the awful tide of war!

He makes war upon the innocent Spaniards, that his military talents As a politician, how consummate was his address !-how grand his may not suffer from inaction, This was a ready way to preserve the projections !-how happy the execution of his measures ! He governs peace of his province, and to secure its loyalty and affection! That his province with such equity and wisdom, as add a milder but a fairer he may be recorded as the first Roman that had ever crossed the Rhine lustre to his glory, and by their fame prepare the Roman people for in a hostile manner, he invades the unoffending Germans, lays waste his happy yoke. Upon the very eve of his rupture with Pompey, he their territories with fire, and plunders and sacks their country. Here sends back, on demand, tho borrowed legions; covering with rewards was a noble policy !--that planted in the minds of a brave and formidable the soldiers that may no longer serve him, and whose weapons on the people the fatal seeds of that revenge and hatred which finally assisted morrow may be turned against his breast-presenting here a noble in accomplishing the destruction of the Roman empire! In short, example of his respect of right, and of that magnanimity which main. Cæsar's views were not of that enlarged nature which could entitle tains that gratitude should not cease, though benefits are discontinued him to the name of a great politician; for he studied not the happivess When he reigns sole master of the Roman world, how temperate is and interest of a community, but merely his own advancement, which his triumph !--how scrupulous his respect for the very forms of the be accomplished-by violating the laws and destroying the liberties laws! He discountenances the profligacy of the patricians, and en- of his country. deavours to preserve the virtue of the state by laying wholesome That Cæsar was a great conqueror, I do not care to disputo. His restraints upon luxury. He encourages the arts and sciences, pa- admirers are welcome to all the advantages that result from each a tronises genius and talent, respects religion and justice, and puts in position. I will not subtract one victim from tho hosts that perished practice every means that can contribute to the welfare, the happiness, for his fame; or abate, by a single grony, the sufferings of his vasand the stability of the empire.

quished enemies. But I will avow it to be my opinion, that the It is unnecessary to recount the military exploits of Cæsar. Why character of a great conqueror does not necessarily constitute that of should I compel your attention to follow him, for the hundredth time, a great man; nor can the recital of Cæsar's victories produce asy through hostile myriads, yielding at every encounter to the force of other impression upon my mind than what proceeds from the conhis invincible arms ? As a captain, he was the first of warriors; nor templation of those convulsions of the earth, which in 4 moment were his valour and skill more admirable than his abstinence and inundate with ruin the plains of fertility and the abodes of peace; watchfulness, his disregard of ease and his endurance of labour, his or, at one shock, convert whole cities into the graves of their bring moderation and his mercy. Perhaps, indeed, this last quality forms population ! the most dominant feature in his character; and proves, by the con- But Cæsar's munificence, his clemency, his moderation, and his sequences of its excess, that virtue itself requires restraint, and has affectionate nature, constitute him a great man! What was his mu. its proper bounds, which it ought not to exceed-for Cæsar's modera-nificence, his clemency, or his moderation !-the automaton of his tion was his ruin !

ambition ! It knew no aspiration from the Deity. It was a thing That Cæsar had a heart susceptible of friendship, and alive to the from the hands of the mechanician!-an ingenious mockery of natur! finest touches of humanity, is unquestionable. Why does he attempt Its action seemed spontaneous-its look argued a soul-but the so often to avert the storm of civil war? Why does he pause so long virtue lay in the finger of the operator. He could possess no rul upon the brink of the Rubicon? Why does he weep when he beholds munificence, moderation, or clemency, who ever expected his rifte to

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be doubled by return-who never abstained, but with a view to slightest use ; that is, by adhering to the rule laid down by excess; nor spared, but for the indulgence of rapacity. Knowles.

Roussea u, and followed by many of the best of our English The following tract on the mission and duty of the man of choral teachers, of identifying them, not with the fixed sounds, learning affords a fitting conclusion to our Lessons in “Reading expressed by the letters, but with the intervals of the diatonic scale, and Elocution:"

DOH' in every key representing the key-note 'RE,' the second XX. THE SCHOLAR'S MISSION.

of the scale, etc. We have already shown that the art of - The wants of our time and country, the constitution of our modern reading music at sight depends upon the ability to recognise at society, our whole position - personal and relative-forbid a life of a glance the intervals of the scale, in whatever key they may mere scholarship or literary pursuits to the great majority of those be written; that is to say, to distinguish at once, not which is who go out from our colleges. However it may have been in other A or B, but which is the key-note, which is the 3rd, 5th, 7th, times, and other lands, here and now, but few of our educated men etc. It will therefore at once be seen that Fordo, by adopting are privileged“ From the loopholes of retreat

Rousseau's rule for using the solfeggio syllables, as names for To look upon the world, to hear the sound

the intervals, converts them into a most profitable exercise, an of the great Babel, and not feel its stir.”

exercise which compels the pupil to study the intervals in every Society has work for us, and we must forth to do it. Full carly and perplexity are introduced by the opposite method. We

bar he sings, and to give up guessing. . . Great confusion and hastily we must gird on the manly gown, gather up the loose leaves and scanty fragments of our youthful lore, and go out among have pointed out the different properties of the fourth and the men, to act with them and for them. It is a practical age; and our seventh, the one tending downwards and the other upwards ; Wisdom, such as it is, “must strive and cry, and utter her voice in the yet although the pitch note] F may sometimes be the fourth streets, standing in the places of the paths, crying in the chief place and at other times the seventh, according to the key, and of concourse, at the entry of the city, and the coming in at the doors." although F in the key of c differs half a tone from F in the key

This state of things, though not suited to the tastes and qualities of G, it is always, we are told, to be called ra!" of all, is not, on the whole, to be regretted by educated men as such.

Two notes OPPOSED to one another in mental effect, and DIFIt is not in literary production only, or chiefly, that educated miud FERING in pitch, yet colled by the same name, and in connection finds fit expression, and fulfils its mission in honour and beneficence, with a system that prides itself on its educational “METHOD.” In the great theatre of the world's affairs, there is a worthy and a sufficient sphere. Society needs the well-trained, enlarged, and cul. tivated intellect of the scholar in its midst !--needs it, and welcomes it, and gives it a place, or, by its own capacity, it will take a place of honour, influence, and power. The youthful scholar has no occasion


Fa to deplore the fate that is soon to tear him from his studies, and cast

Fourth of the Scale.

Seventh of the Scale. him into the swelling tide of life and action. None of his disciplinary and enriching culture will be lost, or useless, even there. Every hour of study, every truth he has reached, and the toilsome process by that the solfeggio syllables, thus employed, tend to mislead

“We think it must be obvious," continues Mr. Hickson, which he reached it; the heightened grace or vigour of thought or speech he has acquired-all shall tell fully, nobly, if he will give heed the pupil rather than assist him in learning the art of sightto the conditions. And one condition, the prime one, is, that he be singing. It is using words, as a lawyer would say, in the sense a true man, and recognise the obligation of a man, and go forth with of a suggestio falsi.” Perhaps the most marked practical ad. heart and will, and every gift and acquirement dedicated, lovingly and vantage of the tonic (or key-note) method of solfa-ing is that resolutely, to the true and the right. These are the terms; and apart it establishes in the ear of the pupil a complete association of from these there is no success, no influence to be had which an in; interval and syllable. So that the syllables become not only genuous mind can desire, or which a sound and far-seeing mind would an unchanging language of interval, useful in connection with dare to seek.

Indeed, it is not an easy thing, nay, it is not a possible thing, to the whole study of music, however far it may be carried, but obtain a substantial success, and an abiding influence, except on these also a guide and prompter in the art of striking interval with terms. A factitious popularity, a transient notoriety, or, in the case accuracy and certainty. Thus, if the syllables ME, FAH are of shining talents, the doom of a damning fame, may fall to bad men. frequently sung to a "semitone" (or tonule), the mind soon But an honoured name, enduring influence, a sun brightening on learns to associate that interval with those syllables, so that through its circuit, more and more, even to its serene setting-this the very attempt to pronounce the syllablo shall call up into boon of a true success goes never to intellectual qualities alone. It the mind the interval to which they have so often been sung. gravitates slowly but surely to weight of character, to intellectual In this way our syllables become invaluable aids and interability rooted in principle.-George Putnam.

preters. We continually hear from singers in various parts of

the country such expressions as this: “When I come to any LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XIII.

very knotty passage, or one with difficult transitions in the

choral 'part' I have to sing, I invariably, now, translate it into RELATION OF NOTES, ETC. (continued).

the sol-fa language, and then it is impossible not to sing it corThe admired glee-writer, Webb, whose name is second to rectly.” But, on the other, the fixed plan, a pupil is, with great none in the department of popular vocal music, in his solfeggio painstaking, through half his course (for full thirty lessons in exercises and instructions in singing, adopts, as a matter of one book) made to associate ME, Fan with a "semitone,” and course, the “movable don;" Dr. Crotch, a great musical then is made to spend most of the other half of his course in authority, used the same method in his " Elements of Compo- learning to alter that association, and sing ME, rau in the sition,” published A.D. 1812; and Mr. W. Forde, author of one new keys to a whole tone! First work hard to do a thing, and of the most popular English works on the "Art of Singing at then work hard to undo it! What a clever and admirably Sight” (published by Cocks and Co.), follows their example. If arranged educational method it is ! other authorities are required, we would gladly leave our appeal 7. We take this opportunity of giving our reason for accom. with such men as Mr. Graham, of Edinburgh, the author of the panging the established notation with a constant interpreter, article on “ Music” in the last edition of the “ Encyclopædia in the new notation placed between the staves. The truth is Britannica ;” Mr. Hogarth, distinguished as a writer on musi. that the old notation, being used perhaps chiefly in connection cal history; Colonel P. Thompson, the profound writer on with instruments, gets forth the pitch of a note (the thing the musical acoustics; Mr. Hickson, the father of English school ordinary instrumentalist wants) in a most clear, distinct, and music; and Mr. Lowell Mason, the eminent American com. pictorial manner, but leaves key-relationship (that which the poser and teacher. Ask any one, who can really sing at sight, vocalist requires to be the first and most obvious thing to how he came to do so, and he will tell you: “By measuring meet the eye, and which is by far the most important thing in interval from the key-note, and keeping the key-note in the eye the science of music itself), but dimly expressed. Hence the vast throughout the tune." Such a person will at once acknowledge variety of sol-fa systems, figure systems, tetrachordal systems, the importance of having a distinct name (DOH) for that key etc., which have sprung up, every good teacher feeling the nenote, and of naming all the other notes by their relation to it. cessity of marking the key-note and the notes related to it more

6. “In teaching," says Mr. Hickson, " the art of sight-singing, visibly. The most successful modern teachers of sight-singing an art rarely taught by Italian professors, whose fashionable have adopted a similar plan. Thus the Rev. J. J. Waite, who pupils only sing to the harp or pianoforte, there is but one mode has taught some thousands of English people how to sing, has of using the solfeggio syllables in which they can be of the done so by means of an interpreting notation of figures placed under the other notes, figure 1 standing for the key-note, 2 for right with those who have been misled with the false notions of the next, etc. We have watched Mr. Waite's pupils, and have music which are so common among persons who possess that found them singing, not from the crotchets and quavers on “ little knowledge" of it which " is a dangerous thing." We the staff, but from the figures below, which they find incom. trust that they are at least satisfied that we feel ourselves enparably easier, because those figures are to them a notation of gaged in a most strenuous and earnest endeavour to diffuse a key-relationship. In Scotland, the well-known educational knowledge of sight-singing by means of the mighty power which writer and publisher, Mr. Gall of Edinburgh, has adopted a the circulation of the POPULAR EDUCATOR gives, and we do not figure notation for many years; and in Ireland we find Dr. doubt that we shall to a large extent succeed. Bryce using both the figures and the sol-fa syllables, in his Our pupils will now study with care the following exercises on exercises, to get forth the relation of notes, while the old nota- the mental effects of DOH, ME, and son. Let them be as scru. tion sets forth the pitch. For the present we shall do the same, pulous as ever in the self-discipline of learning the tune, piecobut soon we shall teach our pupils to do without the syllables, meal, by “heart” (or by “hear it,” as Cobbett used to explain and to use intelligently the established notation alone.

the word), until they can sol-fa it all by memory, pointing on the We have written these paragraphs in order to set ourselves ' modulator the while.

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Eliza Cook is truly one of the people's poets. Her songs are are produced, be very decided and sharp. We should sing fragrant of home and of true heart's love. When once this as to make ourselves understood by a listener. Try the es simple tune is learnt, it should be sung very quickly and

lightly, periment. If our pupil is wise, he will still continue to neglect and yet with a perfect and distinct enunciation of the words. the staff, and confine his attention to the sol-fa syllables osal Let every motion of lipg, tongue, and teeth, by which the words to the modulator,

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It is to the melody of these tunes that we call special atten. ¡ the sos were called doh (though retaining the same sound), tion at present. We are obliged to introduce into the "second" and the phrase ran :dt:, :fi | mi. There also occurs or accompanying part some notes which have not yet been ex- the note DE. This note is as much lower than RAY as te is plained in our course of lessons. In this exercise we have lower than don. Sing it then as a sort of “ leading note" to the phrase : s | fe:r:d|t. Let the pupil sing it as though RAY.

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