Imágenes de páginas


will give additional character and truthfulness. It may not be

necessary that these stens should be completed in the finished FOREGROUNDS,HIGH LIGHTS-SETTING DRAWINGS, ETC. drawing, as probably their whole extent may not be seen; but IN continuation of our remarks upon Foregrounds, we introduce the slight indication of their whereabouts may be useful for the in this lesson a group of dock-leaves. In the drawing, Fig. 108, purpose of adjusting the foliage according to the class of tree we have shown how the principles we endeavoured to explain in to be represented. This process is to be followed throughout the last lesson are to be carried out. The leaf in front repre- the whole drawing. This, which we will call the first stage, must sents in itself a summary of our observations. Notice the pro- be done faintly, so that, with india-rubber-or, what is better jecting part receiving the highest light; the dark cast shadow for the softer kinds of paper, bread-crumbs—these marks may underneath being the strongest in the drawing. Notice, also, the be weakened when the second stage is ready for commencement. cast shadow across the leaf (caused by the one on the left, which In this portion of the work there must be no indecision, par throws the under-leaf back, and brings out the one in light), ticulars must be entered into, especially those upon which the commencing strongly near the high light, and gradually becoming light falls. Amongst these will be found many that owe their


lower in tone as it recedes; this, together with the manner of prominence to sharp, clear terminations ; and the distinctness drawing the carved lines on the surfaces of the leaves, tends to of their forms will be in proportion to the amount of light which give the perspective, and consequently assists in this way to falls upon them. The stems previously and slightly traced may determine the size of the leaf. Examples of this kind can be now receive in those parts in sight all the forcible and distinctive so easily obtained from Nature, that we prefer to leave the pupil qualities they demand, even to the peculiarities observable upon to select them for himself, advising him to preserve them for the bark. At all times avoid a multiplicity of lines when one use as we have recommended, and, when drawing from them, to only will be sufficient. When we see, as we frequently do in the allow his mind to recur to the previous remarks upon the prin early attempts of beginners, a number of lines of all lengths and ciples we have laid before him, which apply not only to the thicknesses muddled together, we can only attribute the practice drawing of a simple weed or dock-leaf, but have their never to doubt and uncertainty; they are waiting to see the effect failing influence upon all subjects admissible in art. In the before they can make up their minds as to the one right line drawing of trees and the larger kinds of shrubs, we must urge required. Such a proceeding indicates weakness, and creates the practice of being particularly careful of the outline, the first confusion. If we were to extend our instructions beyond the process of which must be confined to the general proportions single subject of a tree, and include the whole landscape generally, and positions of the parts in light; and, at the same time, where we could only repeat what has been said before, as our remarks it is possible, trace by a faint line the course of the stems, which are equally applicable to distances and mountains, where it

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would be a great mistake not to be especially careful in their with it cover down the whole of the part intended to be white; forms and outlines. These lines must not be strong, but firm when dry, proceed to the completion of the drawing. It will not and decisive, and the more simple the better; all darker lines in the least matter if the lead pencil should pass over the part must be reserved for the foreground. The method of securing gummed, it will not have any effect upon it. When the drawing the lights upon trees, which we have shown in Fig. 109, will is finished, pin it down at the corners on a board, let it be held explain to the papil the manner of proceeding more clearly than in an inclined position, and pour some hot water over it; the gum words can do. In his practice we recommend him first to copy immediately dissolves, leaving the parts which were covered by parts of the example, and make separate and repeated studies it perfectly white. Broad spaces in light, upon which are to be of those portions which, as he proceeds, he will find to be most drawn minute and sharply-cut details, may be preserved in this

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difficult. He will be better able to decide for himself than we way, and, after the gum is washed off, the details may be made can for him as to which of those parts may require more frequent out upon them. This leads to the use of gum-water in another repetition; and it is almost needless to say, that by frequent way, and that is, as a means of fixing the drawing. If a drawing repetition only can he hope to succeed. There is a very easy is worth anything, it surely is worth setting, that is, fixing the and legitimate way of preserving in pencil drawings the sharp lead or chalk with which it is drawn, so that, under moderate touches of light which are seen upon polished surfaces, streaks treatment, it cannot injure by rubbing. For highly-finished in water, blades of grass, the bright parts of clouds, small objects drawings, or where the chalk or pencil has been very liberally of a naturally light colour on a dark background, or any effect applied, it will be better to proceed in this way :--Nearly fill & where brilliancy is requisite, and where a sharp, clear, and shallow dish or tray, somewhat larger than the drawing, with a distinct outline of the form must be preserved. It is this :- weak solution of gum-water, or—which may sometimes be more After the outline of the object, or part to be preserved, has been convenient a mixture of milk and water, half of each; pass made, dip a fine hair-pencil into tolerably strong gum-water, and the drawing carefully through the mixture (face uppermost)


backwards and forwards; then fix it up on the wall by a corner

VOCABULARY. to drip and dry; or the drawing may be pinned down to a Autrefois, formerly. Ecolier, m., scholar. Presque pas, almost board, held on an incline over a dish, and the milk and water Brun, -e, brown.

Mérit-er, 1, to deserve. pourod over it with a spoon, beginning at the top; it is necessary Chambre, f., room. Noir, -e, black.

Retrouv-er, 1, to find to see that all parts of the drawing have been passed over. If Crayon, m., pencil. Pantoufle, f., slipper. again. tho drawings are merely outlines, or have very little shading Demeur-er,to live, dwell. Parchemin, m., parch. Thème, m., exercise.

De nouveau, again.


Vert, -e, green. upon them, then the fixing medium may be passed over the whole paper with a broad, flat camel-hair brush. With careful treat.

EXERCISE 99. mont, this method of preserving drawings will be found to be

1. De qui parliez-vous ce matin quand je suis venu vous quite satisfactory.

trouver ? 2. Ma cousine parlait de son frère et je parlais du mien. 3. N'aimiez-vous pas mieux le bouf que le mouton


4. J'aimais le bouf, mais je n'ai jamais aimé le

monton. 5. Ne vendiez-vous pas beaucoup de livres lorsque SECTION LII.—THE IMPERFECT TENSE [§ 119]. vous demeuriez à Paris ? 6. J'en vendais beaucoup, parceque 1. The imperfect, or simultaneous past tense, may be called the j'étais libraire. 7. Le libraire a-t-il vendu beaucoup de crayons

ce matin ? 8. Il a vendu beaucoup de crayons aujourd'hui. descriptive tense of the French. The action which it represents, or the situation which it describes, is imperfect of itself. This 9: Vendiez-vous beaucoup de parchemin lorsque vous étiez

libraire ? 10. Je n'en vendais presque pas.

11. Votre frère tense leaves the beginning, duration, and end of an action undetermined. It may often be rendered in English by the portait-il un habit vert lorsqu'il demeurait à Londres ? 12. I auxiliary was, etc., and the participle present of the verb (Š 119, portait un habit brun et des pantoufles noires. 18. Que cher.

chiez-vous ? 14. Je cherchais mon livre. 15. Depuis quand $ 120].

l'aviez-vous perdu ? 16. Je l'avais perdu depuis hier. 17. J'écrivais ce matin quand vous I was writing this morning when you L'avez-vous retrouvé ? 18. Je l'avais retrouvé, mais je l'ai êtes entré,

came in. Je passais hier quand vous m'ap. I was passing yesterday when you bon pain ? 20. Il nous en fournissait d'excellent. 21. Punis

perdu de nouveau. 19. Ce boulanger vous fournissait-il de pelates,

called me.

siez-vous souvent vos écoliers ? 22. Je les punissais quand ? 2. The imperfect is also used to express an action which is ils le méritaient. 23. Où étiez-vous ce matin quand je vous customary or often repeated. It may then be rendered in cherchais ? 24. J'étais dans ma chambre. 25. Je finissais mon English by the words used to placed before the verb.


EXERCISE 100. L'année dernière j'allais tous les Last year I went (used to go) every jours à l'école, day to school.

1. Who was at your house this morning ? 2. My friend G. Quand nous demeurions à la cam- When we were (used to be) in the was there, and was looking for you. 3. Did you speak to my

pagne, nous nous couchions ordi. country, we used to go to bed at father yesterday? 4. I was speaking to him when they brought nairement à neuf heures,

nine o'clock.

me your letter. 5. Did your father (use to) wear a white hat 3. The imperfect can seldom be rendered in English by the when he lived in London? 6. He used to wear a black hat, past tense which takes did* as an auxiliary. The past definite and my brother wore a black coat. 7. Were you singing when nover corresponds in meaning to the English imperfect, com- my father came ? 8. No, Sir, I was finishing my exercise. 9. posed of the auxiliary was and the participle present. It cannot Had you lost your pencil this morning ? 10. I had lost it, and be rendered by the verb preceded by used to.

was looking for it when you spoke to me. 11. You used to like

reading (la lecture); did your sister (use to) like it also ? 12. J'allais à la chasse hier matin I was going a hunting yesterday morn. She liked it also. 13. What song were you singing this morn

quand nous nous rencontrames, ing when we met (did meet). ing? 14. I was singing an Italian song. 15. Have you been J'allai à la chasse hier matin, I went (did go) a hunting yesterday afraid to speak to me ? 16. I have never been afraid to speak morning.

17. Have you brought my book ? 18. I have not 4. The imperfeot is formed from the participle present, by brought it. changing ant into ais, etc. [$ 61). It may also be formed by

SECTION LIII.-THE IMPERFECT TENSE (continued).' adding ais, etc., to the stem of the verb for the first and fourth conjugations; issais, etc., for the second ; and evais, etc., for

1. The imperfect of the indicative of every French verb, the third.

regular or irregular, ends in ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient.

2. No verb of the first conjugation, er, is irregular in this 5. TERMINATIONS OF THE IMPERFECT TENSE OF THE FOUR tense. CONJUGATIONS.

3. The only irregularity found in the irregular verbs of the 1. 2.


second conjugation, ir, is that, to form the imperfect, the stem 8. Jo chant -ais Ain -issais


rend -ais. of these verbs takes ais, etc., instead of issois ; as, ven-ir, je I was singing was finishing was receiving was rondering.

ven-ais ; 'cour-ir, je cour-ais; cueill-ir, je cueill-ais. Exception : Tu parl -ais chérissaig

aperc -evais

vend -ais. Thou wast speaking wast cherishing wast perceiving wast selling.

Fuir, to flee-je fuyais.
Il donn -ait fournissait perc

tend -ait.

4. The irregular verbs of the third conjugation, oir, change не was giving was furnishing was gathering was tending.

that termination (oir) into ais, eto., like the irregular verbs of P. Nous cherch

-issions cono evions entend ions. the same; as, sav-oir, je sav-ais; av-oir, j'av-ais. Exceptions : We were soeking were punishing were conceiving were hearing, se-oir, to become; voir, to see; and their compounds, and déchoir Vous port -iez sais -issiez d -eviez


-iez. (see § 63). You were oarrying were seizing were owing were losing. 5. The changes which the stem of the irregular verbs of the Ils aim -aient un issaient déc -evaient mord

-aient. fourth conjugation undergoes, in this tense, are too various to They were loving were uniting were decoiving were biting.

admit of a complete classification. We, however, offer the RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

following:Je chantais quand on m'apporta I was singing when they brought me

PRENDRE, to take. ECRIRE, to writs. CRAINDRE, to fear.

Jo votre lettre.

pren -ais, etc.

écriv -ais, etc. craign your letter, J'aimais autrefois à lire les poètes I used to like formerly to read the CONNAÎTRE, to know. anglais.

English poets.

-ais, etc.

Conduis -ais, etc.
J'étais dans votre chambre lorsque I was in your room whon you came
vous êtes entré.

6. Like prendre and écrire are conjugated, in this tense, those Je parlai hier toute la matinée. I spoke yesterday the whole morning. verbs in which prendre and crire appear in composition ; £8, Je parlais à votre père lorsque votre I was speaking to your father when comprendre, je comprenais; souscrire, je souscrivais. Like ami nous rencontra hier.

your friend met us yesterday. craindre and connaître, thoso ending in indre and aftre—teindre, Je cherchais votre père. I was looking for your father. je teignais; paraître, je paraissais. Like conduire, those ending

in ire; as, lire, je lisais; faire, je faisais; luire, je luisois; dire, Except when, in interrogative sentences, did is used as an auxiliary je disais, etc. Exceptions : rire, traire, écrire, and their comto used to expressed or understood.


to you.

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-ions pun

-ais, etc.

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my fish ?

7. Mettre and its compounds, and être, are regular in this sommeil

, mais j'a faim. 3. Avez-vous du poivre ou du sel? 4. Jo tense.

n'ai ni poivre ni sel, j'ai du fromage. 5. Votre frère a-t-il soif ou faim ? 8. The participle present, from which the French grammarians 6. Mon frère n'a ni soif ni faim. 7. Votre s@ur a-t-elle raison ou tort ? derive the imperfect, presents, of course, the same irregularities: 10. Ti n'a pas peur, mais honte. 11. Avez-vous du lait ou du fro

8. Elle n'a pas tort, elle a raison. 9. Le bon menuisier a-t-il peur ? as, venant, valani, prenant, écrivant, craignant, connaissant, mage? 12. Je n'ai ni lait ni fromage, j'ai du beurre. 13. Avez-vous le conduisant. Exceptions : avoir, ayant; savoir, sachant.

beau drap ou le bon thé ? 14. Je n'ai ni le beau drap ni le bon thé. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

15. Avez-vous quelque chose, mon bon ami? 16. Je n'ai rien, mon bon

Monsieur, 17. N'avez-vous pas de pain ? 18. Oui, Madame, j'ai de De quoi notre ami avait-il peur ? Of what was our friend afraid?

bon pain, de bon beurre, et de bon fromage. 19. Le charpentier a-t-il Il n'avait peur de rien. He was afraid of nothing.

scmmeil? 20. Le charpentier n'a pas sommeil, mais le ferblantier a N'aviez-vous pas besoin de mon Did you not want my brother ?

faim. 21. Avez-vous le marteau de bois du ferblantier ? 22. Je n'ai frère ?

23, Quel marteau avez-vous ? pas son marteau de bois,

24. J'ai lo Nous avions besoin de lui. We wanted him.

marteau d'acier, 25. Avez-vous un bon habit de drap ? 26. Non, Le marchand n'avait-il pas besoin Did not the merchant want money!

Monsieur, mais j'ai une robe de soie. 27. Le tailleur a-t-il 'lo bon. d'argent ?

bouton d'or? 28. Oui, Monsieur, il a le bon bouton d'or, I en avait grand besoin.

HG had great need of it.
Quelle voiture conduisiez-vous ? What carriage were you driving?

EXERCISE 11 (Vol. I., page 43).
Pour qui me preniez-vous ? For whom were you taking me ?

1. Have you the silver fork? 2. Yes, Sir, I have it. 3. Has the Je venais vous trouver quand je I was coming to you when I met you,

cook the beef ? 4. No, Sir, he has it not. 5. What mutton have you? Pous rencontrai.

6. I have the butcher's good mutton and good veal.

7. Has yous À qui écriviez-vous ce matin ? To whom were you writing this morn

relation the chest of drawers ? 8. No, Sir, he has it not. 9. Has he ing?

10. Who has all the baker's biscuit? 11. The sailor hag J'écrivais à ma seur et à mon I was writing to my sister and to my

neither his bread nor his biscuit. 12. Has he his knife and his fork ? frère, brother,

13. He has neither his knife nor his fork; he has his plate. 14. What VOCABULARY.

dish has he? 15. He has the pretty china dish. 16. Have you mine or his ?

17. I have neither yours nor his; I have ours. 18. Are you Antrement, otherwise. Oubli-er, 1, to forget. Teind-re, 4, ir., to deje. | afraid, Sir ? 19. No, Madam, I am not afraid, I am hungry, 20. Has Cass-er, 1, to break. Pêche, f., fishing. Teinturier, m., dyer. any one my gold watch? 21. No, Sir, no one has it. 22. What is the Chasse, f., hunting. Peind-re, 4, ir., to paint. Toile, f., linen cloth.

matter with you, Sir? 23. Nothing is the matter with me.
Dire, 4, ir., to say. Reven-ir, 2, ir., to re-Rencontr-er, 1, to moet.
Montre, f., watch.

Val-oir, 3, ir., to be worth.

EXERCISE 12 (Vol. I., page 43).
Moins (au), at least. Sav-oir, 3, ir., to know. Ven-ir, 2, ir., to come, to
Mort, -e, dead.

1. Avez-vous le porte-crayon d'argent ? 2. Non, Monsieur, je ne l'ai Se tromp-er, 1, to be

have just.

pas. 3. Avez-vous l'assiette de mon frère ? 4. Oui, Madame, je l'ai. Offens-er, to offend. mistaken.

Vite, quickly.

5. Le boucher a-t-il le bon biscuit ? 6. Il ne l'a pas; il a le bon boeuf, EXERCISE 101.

le bon mouton, et le bon veau. 7. Avez-vous mon couteau et ma 1. Pourquoi n'écriviez-vous pas plus vite ce matin ? 2.

fourchette ? 8. Je n'ai ni votre couteau ni votre fourchette. 9. Qui Parceque j'avais peur de me tromper. 3. No craigniez-vous Avez-vous le mien aussi ? 12. Je n'ai ni le votre ni le sien.

a le biscuit du bon matelot? 10. Le boulanger l'a, et j'ai le mien, 11.

13. Avezpas d'offenser cette dame ? 4. Je craignais de l'offenser, mais

vous faim ? 14. Je n'ai pas faim, j'ai soif et j'ai sommeil. 15. N'avezje ne pouvais faire autrement. 5. Que peigniez-vous ce matin? vous pas honte ? 16. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai pas horte, mais j'ai froid. 6. Je peignais un tableau d'histoire. 7. Votre teinturier que 17. Votre parent a-t-il raison ou tort ? 18. Mon parent a raison, Mon. teignait-il ? 8. Il teignait du drap, de la soie et de la toile. siour. 19. A-t-il mon plat de porcelaine ou mon couteau d'argent ? 9. De quelle couleur les teignait-il ? 10. Il teignait le drap en 20. Il n'a ni votre plat de porcelaine ni votre couteau d'argent; il a noir, et la soie et la toile en vert. 11. Conduisiez-vous le jeune votre assiette de porcelaine. 21. Quelqu'un a-t-il mon porte-crayon Polonais à l'école lorsque je vous ai rencontré ? 12. Je con.

d'argent ? 22. Personne ne l'a, mais votre frère a votre habit de drap.

24. J'ai le vôtre. duisais mon fils ainé à l'église. 13. Que lisiez-vous ? 14. Je 23. Avez-vous le mien ou le sien ? lisais des livres que je venais d'acheter. 15. Ne saviez-vous pas

EXERCISE 13 (Vol. I, page 59). que ce monsieur est mort ? 16. Je l'avais oublié. 17. Combien

1. Has your brother his silver inkstand ? 2. He has it no longer, la montre que vous avez cassée valait-elle ? 18. Elle valait au he has a lead inkstand. 3. Have we the stranger's letter ? 4. Yes, moins deux cents francs. 19. Ne valait-il pas mieux rester ici Sir, we have the stranger's. 5. Your sister has not her slate, but she que d'aller à la chasse ? 20. Il valait beaucoup mieux aller à has her satin bonnet. 6. Has the joiner your wood or his ? 7. Ho l'école. 21. Votre ami que vous disait-il ? 22. Il me disait que has neither mine nor his, he has the gardener's. 8. Have you my good son frère est revenu d'Espagne. 23. N'alliez-vous pas à la silk umbrella? 9. I have your silk umbrella and your satin parasol. chasse tous les jours lorsque vous demeuriez à la campagne ?

10. Have you my bottle ? 11. I have not your bottle, I have your

sister's trunk. 12. Has the servant this salt-cellar? 13. He has not 24. J'allais souvent à la pêche. 25. Mon frère allait tous les this salt-cellar, he has that. 14. Have you the good or the bad jours à l'école quand il était ici.

chicken? 15. I have neither this por that. 16. Which chicken have EXERCISE 102.

you? 17. I have the cook's. 18. Has the baker poultry ? 19. The

20. Have you your cheese or 1. Were you afraid this morning when you came to our honsep baker has no poultry, he has milk.

mine? 21, I have neither yours nor mine, I have the sailor's. 22. Is 2. I was afraid. 3. Of what were you afraid? 4. I was afraid any one hungry? 23. No one is hungry. 24. Is anything the matter of the horse. 5. Was not your friend afraid of falling (de with you ? 25. No, Sir, nothing is the matter with me.

26. Have you tomber)? (See Sect. XX. 2, 4.] 6. He was not afraid of falling, my joiner's mahogany sofa ? 27. No, Sir, I have it not. 28. I have bat he was afraid of making a mistake (de se tromper). (See 2, in his pretty looking-glass and his good penoil. exercise above.] 7. Were you taking your son to school ? 8. I

EXERCISE 14 (Vol. I., page 59). was conducting him to school. 9. What colour was the dyer dyeing the silk? 10. He was dyeing some red and some green. parapluie de cette dame. 3. Avez-vous ce parasol-ci ou celui-là 2 cm

1. Votre frère a-t-il le parapluie de cette dame? 2. Mon frère a le 11. Was he dyeing his cloth black or green ? 12. He was

Je n'ai ni celui-ci ni celui-là. 5. Avez-vous la montre d'or de l'étranger ? neither dyeing it black nor green, he was dyeing it pink (rose). 6. Non, Monsieur, j'ai celle du boulanger. 7. Qui a mon ardoise ? 8. 13. What was the gentleman reading ? 14. He was reading a J'ai votre ardoise et celle de votre frère. 9. Le cuisinier a-t-il une letter which he had just received. 15. Were you cold when you salière d'argent ? 10. Le cuisinier a une salière d'argent; et un plat came here? 16. I was cold, hungry, and thirsty. 17. Were d'argent. 11. Lo cuisinier a-t-il cette volaille-ci ou celle-là ? 12. n you not ashamed of your conduct (conduite) ? 18. I was n'a ni celle-ci ni celle-là. 13. A-t-il ce pain-ci ou celui-là ? 14. Il n'a ashamed of it. 19. Whither were you going when I met you? ni celui-ci ni celui-là, il a le bon pain du boulanger. - 15. Avez-vous 20. I was going to your house. 21. Were you driving your votre parasol de soie. 17. Le jardinier a-t-il une malle de cuir ?

mon parasol de coton? 16. Je n'ai pas votre parasol de coton, j'ai

18 brother's carriage ?

22. I was driving my own (la mienne). Le jardinier a une malle de cuir. 23. Were you writing to me or to my father? 24. I was writing Personne n'a votre fromage, mais quelqu'un a celui de votre frère.

19. Qui a mon bon fromage ? 20. to your friend's cousin.

21. Avez-vous le mien ou le sien ? 22. Je n'ai ni le vôtre ni lo sien, j'ai

celui de l'étranger. 23. Le cuisinier a-t-il cette bouteille-ci od ce. KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.

balai là ? 24. Il a cette bouteille-ci. 25. Avez-vous un encrier de EXERCISE 10 (Vol. I., page 43).

plomb ? 26. Non, Monsieur, j'ai un encrier de porcelaine, 27,

L'étranger a-t-il de la volaille ? 28. L'étranger n'a pas de volaille, mais .. Arez-vous sommeil,' Monsieur ? 2. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai pas il a de l'argent. 29. Votre frère a faim et soif, peur et sommeil. 30.

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Quelqu'un a-t-il honte? 31. Non, Monsieur, personne n'a honte. 32. through the gramme, which is the weight of 1 cubic centi. Votre frère a-t-il raison ou tort? 33. Mon frère a raison, et le vôtre mètre of pure water, taken at the maximum density of water, & tort. 34. Votre seur n'a ni son chapeau de satin, ni son chapeau de

a temperature of 4o Centigrade, and weighed at Paris. velours. 35. Le boulanger a-t-il la commode d'acajou ? 86. Il ne l'a pas, il a le sofa d'acajou. 37. Le ferblantier a-t-il mon assiette ? 38.

THERMOMETRY, I n'a pas votre assiette, il a la mienne.

Heat is—"that which produces in us the sensation of warmth." EXERCISE 15 (Vol. I., page 59).

Temperature is—“that energy with which one body seeks to 1. Have you the carpenter's hammers ? 2. We have the black impart its heat to another.” smith's hammers. 3. Have the blacksmiths two wooden hammers ?

Thus the temperature of a body is no indication of the real 4. They have two iron hammers. 5. Have the generals the silk hats quantity of heat in the body. Equal weights of mercury and of the child ? 6. They have the child's jewels and playthings. 7. Have water may have the same temperature, and yet the water will the children the birds of your wood ? 8. They have not the birds of contain really thirty times more heat or caloric than the metal. my wood, but they have the horses of my general. 9. Has the black- Thermometers are measurers of “temperature," not of heat. smith a pair of woollen stockings ? 10. The blacksmith has two pairs High temperatures are measured by pyrometers; extremely low of woollen stockings. 11. Sir, are you not cold ? 12. No, Sir, I am temperatures by alcohol thermometers; while mercurial therwarm. 13. Have you coffee or chocolate ? 14. I have neither coffee por chocolate. 15. Have you not the cabbages of my large garden ? mometers are used for the intermediate ordinary temperatures.

These instruments depend for their action upon the 16. I have the vegetables of your small garden. 17. What is the matter with your son ? 18. My son has nothing. 19. Have you two fact that all bodies, with the rise and fall of their pieces of bread ? 20. The miller has a piece of bread and two barrels temperatures, expand and contract. In pyrometers of flour. 21. Has the grocer coffee, tea, chocolate, and pepper ? 22. He (Fig. 1), a small bar of platinum, s, which can only be has tea and coffee, and your merchant's chocolate and pepper. 23. Who melted by the intense heat of the flame of the oryhas money? 24. I have no money,

but I have paper. 25. Have you hydrogen blowpipe, is placed in a hole, bb, drilled
good paper? 26. I have bad

in a piece graphite, o, a form of carbon which is
capable of supporting any heat.

The bar projects

above the hole, and is bound to the graphite-a LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.—III.

piece of which has been sliced away to expose the MEASURES USED IN CHEMISTRY.—The French weights and hole—by a platinum strap, a. The position of the measures, which are on the decimal system, are universally top of the bar is carefully noted. It

now introadopted in chemistry, on account of their simplicity.

duced into the furnace whose temperature is required.

The bar expands, and when it is removed, the strap

English Inches.

prevents it from resuming its former position. Thus Millimètre


the expansion of the platinum is found, and from Centimètre


experiment we have learnt that for every 100° Cent. Decimètre


platinum expands list of its length, and therefore we Fig. 1. METRE

39.37079 Decamètre


can calculate the heat of the furnace. Hectomètre


Mercury is chiefly used for thermometers for five reasons :Kilomètre


1. It is easily got pure, for mercury can be distilled like Myriomètre



2. It does not stick to the glass.

3. It has a long range, freezing at — 40° Cent., and boiling Millilitre


at 350° Cent. Centilitre


4. It expands uniformly—that is, it increases as much in bulk Decilitre 6-102705 Pints.

if heated from 500 to 60°, as it LITRE (a cubic decimètre) 61.027051 - 1.76

will from 150° to 160°. Decalitre 610-270515

5. Having a low “capacity for Hectolitre. 6102.705151

heat," Kilolitre 61027.051519

its temperature soon Myriolitre. 610270:515194

changes; it is, therefore, very

English Grains.




1. Take a glass tube with a caGRAMME 15.452

pillary bore (fine, " like a hair"), Decagramme 154.323

as represented at A in Fig. 2; Hectogramme 1543.234

make about half an inch of merKilogramme 15432.348

cury run down it, and measure it Myriogramme 154323.488

at different points in its descent. A kilogramme = 2.2046 lbs. avoirdupois.

If it retain its length, the bore In verifying the following results by arithmetical calculation,

is uniform. the student will impress on his mind this system of weights and

2. Blow the bulb, B, not with measures :

the mouth, lest moisture be intro1 inch 2.539954 centimètres.

duced, but by connecting the tube, 1 foot

= 3·0479449 decimètres. 1 yard

by an india-rubber pipe, with a = 0.9143834 mètre. 1 mile 1.6093149 kilomètre.

bag of the same material, and 1 cubic inch 16.3861 cubic centimètres.

then pressing the bag while the 1 cubic foot = 28 31531 cubic decimètres.

end of the tube is held in a gas 1 gallon 4.54345 litres.

flame, as hereafter to be described. 1 grain 0-06480 gramme.

3. Fasten a funnel of paper, C, 1 Troy oz. = 31.103496 grammes

to the top of the tube, and put 1 lb. avoir. 0.45359 kilogramme.

Fig. 2.

into it some purified mercury; 1 cwt. 50-80237 kilogrammes.

now heat the bulb, and the air The whole of the above system is founded on the "mètre,” expanding will bubble through it. Upon removing the lamp, which measure was originally intended to be tonood of the the air will contract

, and the mercury will be forced into the distance along a meridian from the equator to the pole. But bulb. Repeating this process a few times, the balb and tube since the “mètre was thus fixed, an error has been discovered will be filled. The lamp flame is again applied to the balb, and in the measurement of the earth, and now a "standard” mètre while the mercury is oozing out, the tube is hermetically sealed, is kept in Paris.

by bringing a blowpipe flame to play upon its open end. The measures of weight are connected with those of length 4. Thermometers are graduated according to three scales.


In Cubic Inches.

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