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men.

son.

son.

of inflection in all cases, both singular and plural; so that those I called his attention to it; he only follows his own caprice. 16. The in dl and er merely affix & to the genitive singular and u to the teacher reminded the scholars how admirubly and excellently God has dative plural, while those in en, den, and lein assume nothing regulated everything in the world. 17. The judge in vain asked him beyond the 8 in the genitive singular.

why he had committed this crime: the accused had nothing to reply

to it. 18. I have received the letter, but I do not know what reply to EXAMPLES.

make to it. 19. I should know what to say if I were in your place. Singular.

Plural.

20. The men of whom you are speaking are not exactly the best repreNom. Der Bogel, the bird. Die Vögel, the birds.

sentatives of the country. 21. I allowed my tongue free play, and Gen. Des Vogels, of the bird. Der Vögel, of the birds.

related the injustice that had been done to me. 22. He spoke freely, Dat. Dem Vogel, to the bird. Den Vögeln, to the birds.

and, in his animation, said more than he should have done. 28. The Acc. Den Vogel, the bird. Die Bögel, the birds.

accuser did not allow the accused to speak, but continued with his

accusations without listening to the excuses. 24. The noise drowned Nom. Der Degen, the sword. Die Degen, the swords.

the voice of the speaker, and did not allow him to be understood. Gen. Des Degene, of the sword. Der Degen, of the swords.

EXERCISE 143 (Vol. III., page 90). Dat. Dem Degen, to the sword. Den Degen, to the swords.

1. Ihr Freund, welchen wir vorgestern sahen, ist franf, nicht wahr? 2. Acc. Den Degen, the sword. Die Degen, the swords.

Gs war ein angenehmer Abend, nicht wahr, mein Freund? 3. Ja, das war Nom. Der Bürger, the citizen. Die Burger, the citizens.

cs, und nie werde ich das Vergnügen vergessen, welches wir hatten. 4. Gen. De8 Bürgers,of the citizen. Der Bürger, of the citizens. Nicht wahr, Ihr Herr Bruder war auch da? 5. Es ist noch früh, nicht Dat. Dem Bürger, to the citizen. Den Bürgern, to the citizens. wahr? 6. Nein, es ist sehr spät, und wir müssen gehen. 7. Ich habe Acc. Den Bürger, the citizen. Die Bürger, the citizens.

schon eine Stunde auf meinen Freund gewartet, aber er ist noch nicht gefom Nom. Das Büchlein, the little Die Büchlein, the little books.

8. Ich warte auf unsern Diener. 9. Warten Sie nicht auf ihn, book.

ich habe ihn soeben ausgeschidt. 10. Als ich in London anfam, ging ich Gen. Des Büchleins, of the little Der Büchlein, of the little books. gleich zu meinem Freunde, an welchen ich Empfehlungsbriefe hatte, und book.

machte ihm meine Auswartung. 11. Darf ich Ihnen mit einer Tasse Dat. Dem Büchlein, to the little Den Büchlein, to the little books. Chocolate aufwarten? 12. Ich sanfe Ihnen. 13. Werden Sie uns nicht book.

besuchen, che Sie nach dem Continente reisen? 14. Ja, ich werde Ihnen Acc. Das Büchlein, the little Die Büchlein, the little books.

meine Auswartung machen. 15. Darf ich Ihnen mit einem Vlase Bier. book.

auswarten? 16. Ich banke Ihnen, ich trinke nie Bier. 17. Ich habe die

Neuigfeit gehört, weiß aber nicht, was ich dazu sagen soll. 18. Sic sprechen Nom. Das Söhnchen, the little son. Die Söhnchen, the little sons. Gen. Det Söhnchens, of the little Der Söhnchen, of the little sons.

Französisch und Deutsch, nicht wahr?

EXERCISE 144 (Vol. III., page 90). Dat. Dem Sühnchen, to the little Den Söhnchen, to the little sons.

1. It grieves me to see so many people unhappy. 2. The wound pains him more and more every day. 3. Nothing grieves one more

than to be mistaken by people whose love and esteem one wishes to Acc. Das Söhnchen, the little son. Die Söhnchen, the little sons. obtain. 4. I am sorry that I have offended him. 5. Parting and

(4.) Some feminine nouns are, in the plural, varied according avoiding gives pain, says an old German national song. 6. My head to this declension ; especially those ending in the suffix nib. aches. 7. It grieves me to the heart not to be able to assist him, 8.

What is the matter, my friend ? why so sad ? 9. Nothing ails me, EXAMPLES.

except that I am a little ont of humour. 10. Are you ill ? 11. Yes, Singular.

Plural.

I am a little indisposed. 12. What ails you ? 13. I have a head-ache. Nom. Die Maus, the mouse. Die Mäuse, the mice.

14. You are rich and respected, and yet you are dejected; what ails Gen. Der Maus, of the mouse. Der Mäuse, of the mice.

you? 15. I am in want of much" contentment and tranquillity of Dat. Der Piaus, to the mouse. Den Mäusen, to the mice.

mind." 16. All my friends who had promised to come were there, one Acc. Die Maus, the mouse. Die Mäuse, the mice.

alone excepted. 17. All men are subject to commit errors (literally,

all men fail). 18. My brother missed the way again; instead of Nom. Die Kenntniß, the know. Die Kenntnisse.

coming into my house, he went into that of my neighbour. 19. He ledge.

repented of his words, and promised that he would never say so again. Gen. Der Kenntniß, of the know. Der Kenntnisse.

20. When this happened, I was not at home. 21. This quarrel took ledge.

place near to my dwelling. 22. I have only to add little to what has Dat. Der Kenntniß, to the know- Den Kenntnissen.

been already said. 23. She sent a short letter with this present. 24. ledge.

He did me this mischief intentionally, therefore I cannot pardon him. Acc. Die Kenntniß, the know- Die Kenntnisse.

EXERCISE 145 (Vol. III., page 91). ledge.

1. Es schmerzt einen Vater, von der Gottlosigkeit seines Sohnes zu hören. To this class belong the nouns in the following list :

2. Nichts schmerzt mehr, als unschuldig angeklagt zu sein. 3. Es schmerzt Angst, anguish. Sand, hand. ! Nacht, night.

mich, daß man so viele Menschen gefunden hat, tie durch den legten Sturm Armbrust, crossbow. Haut, skin.

Nath, seam.

umgefommen sind. 4. Es thut mir leid, daß Sie mich nicht zu Hause geAusflucht, evasion. Kluft, gulf.

Noth, distress.

funden haben. 5. Die Wunde, welche der Soltat in dem Streite erhielt, Art, axe. Kraft, force.

7. D! nichts besonNuß, nut.

schmerzt ihn. 6. Was fehlt Ihnen, mein Freund ?

teres. Bant, beneh. Kuh, cow.

8. Sie sehen sehr frank aus, was fehlt Ihnen ? 9. Ich bin nicht

ẽau, Bow Braut, bride.

wohl, ich habe mir weh gethan. 10. &r ist aus dem Fenster gefallen. 11. Kunst, art.

Schnur, string.
Brust, breast.
Laus, louse.

Es fehlt ticsem Knaben an Verstand. 12. Sie sind von mir beleidigt wor

Stadt, city.
Faust, fist.
Luft, air.
Wand, wall.

den; es ihut mir leid, tenn icy achte Sie schr. 13. Es tarf Ihnen nicht
Frucht, fruit.
Lust, delight.
Wulst, pad.

an Muth fehlen, um dem Streite mit Ihrem Feinde entgegen zu gehen. 14. Macht, power. Wurst, sausage.

Es fehlt mir an Geduld, der Erfolg dieser Sache abzuwarten. Geldwulst, swelling. Magt, maidservant. Zunft, guild. [ing.

EXERCISE 146 (Vol. III., page 91). Grust, tomb. Maus, mouse. Zusammenkunft, meet. 1. Since I arrived here, many things have occurred already. 2.

Since he committed this deed, all peace seems to have forsaken him. KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN.

3. From the time he left, I have not had a thoroughly happy hour. EXERCISE 142 (Vol. III., page 90).

4. Since this time one has heard nothing of him. 5. I left my paren

tal house at ten years of age. 6. I have not felt myself quite well 1. It was an agreeable hour, was it not, my friend ? 2. Yes, that it since yesterday. 7. Since the death of his parents he has been roving was, and I shall not very soon forget it. 3. The neighbour was also in foreign lands, destitute of bome. 8. Since be has become conscious at the feast, was he not? 4. Yes, he was there, and very merry, 5. of himself, he is quite a different person. 9. He dressed himself with It is surely very late, is it not? 6. No, it is still early. 7. It is not all haste. 10. In his hurry he forgot to put on his boots, and ran off in all true what people say, is it ? 8. No, one cannot believe them in his slippers. 11. His clothes were wet through, consequently he was everything. 9. I have already waited an hour for him, and yet he obliged to change his dress. 12. This morning he did not put on his does not make his appearance. 10. We are waiting for the waiter who hat, but his cap. 13. The servant did not as usual help his master to is waiting upon us.

11. I will wait upon you this afternoon, if you put on his cloak, but the latter put it on himself. 14. Do not forget please 12. May I help you to a cup of tea or coffee? 13, 1 thank to put on your cloak; it is very cold and stormy. 15. Please put on you for (your offer of) tea ; but, if you please, I will take a cup of my cloak and hat, as I have already got my thick fur gloves on. 16. coffee. 14. The princes who were present at the coronation of the He climbed up the highest tree, that he might be able to see the king. German emperors at Aix-la-Chapelle waited at table. 15. In vain have 17. He was in great baste, that he might not miss the starting of the

Gans, goose.

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stage-coach. 18. He told me this, that it might be an example to me. of the bow are finished with wax thread, which prevents them 19. The scholar excused himself by saying, that he had had no time to from wearing out by friction. The distance of the string from learn his exercise. 20. In great states hundreds must starve, in order the middle of the bow, when strung, should be one inch to that one may gormandise and rerel : tens of thousands are oppressed and bunted to death, that one crowned fool or philosopher may gratify a foot of its length. Thus, a five foot bow has its string his whims.

exactly five inches from the handle.

The size of the string must be proportionate to the strength

of the bow, and this should correspond to the power of the OUR HOLIDAY.

person using it. The strength of a bow is measured by the

force required to draw it up to the head of its arrows-that is, ARCHERY.-I.

to bend it to the fullest extent which it is calculated to bear As a light and amusing pastime, archery has been rapidly with safety. The force necessary is measured in pounds, and growing in favour within the last few years, and societies for its then stamped on the bow near the handle. Some bows require practice are now formed all over the country. Many school and a poll equal to thirty, others to forty or fifty pounds, but public recreation grounds are supplied with the apparatus between thirty and forty may be taken as a medium standard. necessary for its practice, and, as it is one of those few The length of a bow is usually from five feet, to five out-door sports in which both sexes can participate, it deserves feet eight or nine inchos. A convenient size is about the even a wider popularity than it holds at present.

height of the person who will use it. There was a time—not so long ago

The arrow (Fig. 6) consists of three as may be thought—when skill in the

parts—the stele or shaft, a, the head, b, use of bow and arrow was ardently

and the feathers, c. The shafts are cultivated by a large number of the

Fig. 1.

made of different kinds of wood, light people, and carefully encouraged by

or heavy, according as the weapon is to the State. They were our chief wea

be used for target or for flight shooting pons of war before the invention of

Fig. 6.

—that is, at a mark or to a distance firearms, and they continued in use

a light arrow of course travelling farlong afterwards. The skill of our

Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. ancestors with these weapons won

ther than a heavy one. The shafts are

rounded throughout their length, but for England the battles of Poictiers

sometimes thicker at one end than and Agincourt, and, from their fre

the other, tapering gradually. The quent mention in much later history,

head of the arrow is of iron or steel, it would appear that the country was

about three quarters of an inch long, loth to give them up. In the six

and with a rather blant point. At teenth century, the keenest rivalry

the other extremity a nock is made prevailed among various parts of the

in the end to fit it on to the string, kingdom as to which should furnish

and this nock is protected with horn, the best marksmen, and the City of

to prevent it from being split by the London especially was famous for its

string in shooting. dextrous archers. We are informed

The feathers, by which the flight by Strutt that on one occasion Henry

of the arrow is guided, are three in VIII. ordered a grand archery match

Fig. 4.

Fig. 5.

number. One is usually of a different to be held at Windsor, and that a

colour from the other two; this is citizen from Shoreditch, who joined

called the cock feather, and serves to the competitors, far excelled them all.

guide the archer as to the position The king was so pleased with his

in which the arrow should be placed prowess that he jocosely gave him the

on the string, the rule being to have title of “Duke of Shoreditch," and

the cock feather uppermost. The by this name the captain of the

length of the arrow corresponds to London iurchers was known long after

that of the bow, a five feet bor wards. Towards the close of that

usually being furnished with artows century, Queen Elizabeth offered to

of two feet, and so on in proportion. send three thousand archers to the

When not in use, the arrows are assistance of Charles IX., King of

kept in a quiver (Fig. 2), but when France; but, a little later on, we find

shooting is going on they are placed the antiquary Stow lamenting that

Fig. 8.

Fig. 7.

in a pouch, which is suspended from by the closing in of common grounds

the archer's belt (Fig. 3). There is our archers, for want of room to shoot

also a tassel attached to the belt, for abroad, creep into bowling alleys.” This encroachment upon the removing from the arrows dust, etc., which might affect their fight

. convenience of archers was checked by James I.; and Charles II. The fingers of the hand which draws the bowstring are proheld a review of the Finsbury archers so late as 1682. This tected by a glove (Fig. 4), which consists of three finger stalls, was, perhaps, the last occasion on which archery was dignified in attached to the wrist by a string, and used either with or England by any other position than that of a pastime. Even without an ordinary glove. For the arm which holds the bov, as such it dropped out of favour in the last century, bat has there is a leather bracer (Fig. 5), which prevents the string from been revived in the present, and now, as we have said, Aourishes striking it when the arrow is loosed. The bracer is generalls vigorously.

about six or eight inches in length, and is attached to the arm by The bow and arrow of the present day are lighter and more straps, according to the method of handling the bow, and ornamental than those which were used of old ; but, with these the exact part of the arm which consequently needs protection

, exceptions, they are nearly the counterparts of weapons which The targets (Fig. 7), which afford the mark for the arrows, are were commonly employed in very ancient times, both for war made of leather or cloth stuffed with straw, and painted with and the chase. The form of the bow is seen in the accompanying rings of various colours, to facilitate

observation of the exact illustration of the implements of archery (Fig. 1). It is made spots where the arrows strike. In the centre is a gold circle, and either of yew, or of ash and lancewood carefully giued together. next are rings of red, white, black, and white again, with a It is tipped with horn at each end, and in each tip is a nock or green border. The targets are usually

in diameter about twice notch for the bowstring. Nearly in the middle, but not quite, the length of the arrows to be shot at them. It is customary is the handle , which is covered with velvet. It is placed slightly to use two targets in archery, one fixed at each end of the

ground

, below the centre, so that the arrow may be fired from that to obviate the necessity of continually returning to the same point.

The bowstring is made of twisted hemp, dressed with gum or shooting. In our next paper we shall describe the principles of glue to keep it from wet, and the portions inserted in the nocks the pastime, and the best mode of practice.

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NATURAL HISTORY OF COMMERCE. We conclude from the foregoing that a crop of wheat CHAPTER III. (continued).

will extract from the soil certain ingredients, while beans

and potatoes will extract others. Hence a piece of land THE EFFECTS OF GEOLOGY ON THE INDUSTRY OF THE BRITISH PEOPLE (continued).

may suit one kind of crop, and not another. Hence,

also, two successive crops of different kinds may grow Relation of Geology to Agriculture (continued)—Influence of certain

Constituents of Rocks on the growth of Plants-Inorganic Matter well where it would greatly injure the soil to take two in various species of Plants-Comparison between other countries in succession of the same kind. It is also evident from and parts of Great Britain-General Summary of Minerals and the above table that the cereals contain phosphates, and Metals exported and produced in 1867.

that there is much potash in potatoes and turnips; while Influence of certain Constituents of Rocks on the Growth beans, and most leguminous plants, contain lime. of Plants.

As the straw of cereal plants contains comparatively Rocks

may be viewed under a threefold aspect-sili. little of some of the ingredients found in the ear, such ceous, argillaceous, and calcareous. Siliceous rocks of as lime, magnesia, and phosphoric acid—the straw and soft nature produce light soils, which are the least pro- husk being especially rich in silica-so the roots may ductive; whilst the hard, intractable grits form little in certain plants and in certain soils succeed in fully soil, because they are difficult to decompose, and that nourishing the straw, while they cannot fructify the ear; little is to a great extent barren. The slaty rocks pre- or the very reverse of this may occur. sent the same superficial aspects as those of the hard (6.) Sources of the Inorganic Constituents of Plants and grits; but the soft argillaceous soils, from their power the Agricultural Capabilities of Soils derived from various of retaining water, are heavy, and are usually laid out | Geological Epoche. into permanent pasture-lands. The pure calcareous As the inorganic compounds are derived from the soil strata, as chalk, though forming soils ranking 'amongst or from manure supplied to it, the adaptation of certain our richest, are not to be compared with those resulting crops to given land will be dependent upon the chemical from the disintegration of the less pure.

composition of the rock from which the soil is derived. (a) Inorganic Constituents of Plants.

Soils derived from rocks devoid of phosphates cannot A plant is compounded of two sets of constituents, produce cereals, whilst soils derived from the decomposithe organic and inorganic; the former is derived from tion of rocks that contain the inorganic constituents of water and the atmosphere, whilst the latter is obtained cereals are necess

essarily the best adapted for the growth from the soil. Now the quantity of inorganic food re- of such crops. quired by different vegetables is greater or less accord- Dr. Daubeny experimented upon the relative amount ing to their nature; and if a soil be of such a kind that of phosphoric acid obtained from barley sown in pulit can yield only a small quantity of this inorganic food, verised samples of various strata of different geological then those plants only will grow well upon it for which cpochs, and he found that whatever the age of the rock this small supply will prove sufficient. Thus trees may might be, provided it belonged to a series in which grow where arable crops often fail to thrive, because organic remains were present, phosphoric acid was one many of the former require and contain comparatively of the constituents of the rock. On the other hand, little inorganic matter.

phosphoric acid was absent in certain slates which lie TABLE OF THE PROPORTION OF INORGANIC MATTER IN below the oldest rocks in which organic remains have 1,000 LBS. OF THE FOLLOWING SUBSTANCES.

been detected-such, for instance, as those of Nant

Francon, Llanberis, near Bangor, to the north of Dol. Wheat, about

gelly; schist taken from the foot of Snowdon; micaOats.

1. to 3 Turnips

schist from Loch Lomond ; and certain specimens from Barley

Ash Wood

the Longmynd Mountains.

The reclamation of those great tracts of land, the peat-
Barley
Meadow Hay, 50 to 100 lbs.

bogs in Ireland, for the purposes of agriculture has occu

pied a very large amount of attention; but the progress From the above table it appears that the quantity of of chemistry in later years has divested the question of inorganic matter varies in different parts of the same much of the paramount importance that was formerly plants-as for example, the straw of our crops contains attached to it; for now that by the researches of Liebig more ash than the grain. In trees and plants the leaves and others the true principles of the growth of agriare richer in inorganic matter than the wood or stalk. The quality of the ashes of plants varies with the even if thoroughly drained, peat will not supply the

cultural crops are understood, it is well known that, same conditions by which its quantity is affected. The materials necessary for the production of food, and that more commonly occurring mineral substances in them the cost of introducing those materials in the form of are-phosphates of lime, soda, potash, and magnesia; manures, if applied to land in better condition occupying carbonates of soda and lime; chlorides of potassium and the same area, will yield greater and more profitable sodium; sulphates of soda and potash; iron and silica.

returns. TABLE OF THE QUALITY OF INORGANIC MATTER IN VARIOUS An examination of the chemical components of the

following rocks, the soils of which form our finest corngrowing lands, will show the practical advantage of geological and chemical knowledge, and explain the great difference in tho respective producing powers of such soils :

Ibs.

lbs.

2

Peas.

.

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lbs.
20
40
30
30
90

Oak Wood
Pino Wood
Wheat Straw
Oat

50 5 to 8 1 to 6

19 100

50 60 50

Beans
Clover

Elm Wood
Elm Leaves

.

SPECIES OF PLANTS.

Oats.

Rye.

Indian
Corn.

Beans.

Liuseed.

Turnip.

Infer. Oolite Great Oolite.

Cornbrash.

.

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Potash
Soda
Lime
Magnesia
Oxide of Iron
Phosphoric Acid
Sulphuric Acid
Silica
Chlorine

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237 136 262 200
91 81

116
28 26 60 49
120

75 100 103

15
500 390 438 495

3 1 105 9
12 273 27

3

14 162

3 419 28 14 2

13

is | Potato.

336 215 557 419
106 34 19 51
58! 147 20 136 Carbanate of Lime
80 99 53

53 Magnesia
6 19 5

13 Sulphate of Lime
380 381 126 76 Alumina
10 9 136 136 Phosphoric Acid
12 57 42 79 Soluble Silica
7 3

36 Insoluble Silica

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25

30

45

30
35

35 40

40 45

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£

METALS

AND COAL AND

£

These analyses show that phosphoric acid and sulphato

MINERALS. of lime-two important chemical substances in the

Quantities. Value. growth of crops-greatly predominate in the cornbrash,

Tons. and are in excess in the great colite above the inferior Brought forward Total Value

31,929,076 oolite. The yield of corn, in bushels, of a fair average

Iron Pyrites.

116,889 67,453

Gold Quartz . crop grown upon an acre, will be seen to be proportionate

3,2:1

5,320 to the amount of these chemical substances in the soil; Arsenic (partly estiinated)

Nickel Ore

14

2,255 the one containing the largest amount of these salts Gossans, etc..

4,112 5,482

5,808 affording regularly the largest crop :

Wolaram

10

62 Manganese

808

3,232 Infer. Oolite. Great Oolite. Cornbrash. Barytes.

11,107

7,807 Coprolites

37,009 70,300 Wheat (bushels) 15 to 20 20 to 25

Salt 25 to 30

1,394,939 836,963 Barley

Clays, fine and fire.

1,179,300 589,650) Oats 25 30

Earthy Minerals not returnel (estimated) 50

650,000

Total Value of the Minerals produced in the United The average of rent, which may be gathered from the

Kingdom .

£34,160,797 following table, varies in accordance :

METALS OBTAINED FROM THE ABOVE ORES.
Inferior Oolite.

7s, to 20s. the acre.
Great Oolito

METALS.

Quantities. Value, Cornbrash 20s.

Tons. IV. Comparison between other countries and parts of Iron

4,761,023 11,902,557 Great Britain.

Tin

8,700 799,203 With a geological map before him, the reader will Copper

10,233 831,761

Lead pow be able to infer from the physical features presented

68,440 1,337,509

Zinc by any country the industrial pursuits of the people

3,750 79,693 occupying it. We present a few examples :

Ounces.
Silver

805,594 215,400 Since the rocks of Normandy and Picardy are identical Gola

1,520

5,890 with those of our midland and southern counties-being Value of other Metals (estimated)

15,000 of oolitic and cretaceous age-we should infer that the inhabitants are agricultural, the chalk tracts being occu

Total Value of Metals

£15,187,018 pied by pasturage, the limestone of the oolitic strata ABSOLUTE TOTAL VALUE OF THE forming arable soils, whilst its clays are growing a

OTHER MINERALS PRODUCED IN 1867. variety of crops.

Value of the Metals produced from the Mines of the Belgium is an equivalent to South Wales or to the United Kingdom

15,137,013 Staffordshire district, its four southern provinces being Value of Coal ·

26,125,115 constituted of rocks of the carboniferous age, and pre- Other Minerals, not smelted, Salt, Clay, etc.

2,167,934 senting an association of coal, iron, and limestone, such

£43,499,00 as we have ascertained to prevail in the English areas

GENERAL SUMMARY OF COAL EXPOPTED FROM THE UNITED now mentioned. The aggregate of all mining and metal industries recorded for 1860 was £10,751,000; the prin

KINGDOM IN 1867, DISTINGUISHING THE COAL-FIELDS FROM cipal products of its mines are iron-ore, blende, calamine,

WHICH EXPORTED, AND THE COUNTRIES TO WHICH SENT,

AS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL EXPORTS FOR 1866.
galena, and coal.
Switzerland, the mountain country par excellence of

Ship'd
Northern York. Lanca-

Total Europe, with its metamorphic rocks, might be inferred Countries. Poris.

Western. Scotch. shire. shire.

Lonto be a repetition of the phenomena which obtain in North Wales; but it is otherwise, for these granitio

Tons.

Tons. Tons. Tong.

France 920,477 81,9001 30,310 848.927 67,243 626 1,949,483 1,898,125 and gneissic rocks are but metamorphosed oolitic and Denmark. 432,278 55,438 116 42,563 82,828 1,236 614,451 618,206 newer strata ; and as we have shown that deposits of Norway

103,704 17,913

4,776 70,918 197,311 166,88+ 219,453 21,336

2,010 15,440 270 258,509 253,026 these formations are usually unproductive in minerals, Russia 388,851 45,981 6,942 55,506 45,500 1,220 544,000 520,014 Switzerland, if our generalisations are correct, can nerer

Austria 41,971 104 9,406 26,610 3,626 1,300 83,017 76,102

34,338 39,954 791,906 724,121 be a mining country, and, from its mountainous cha- Germany. 687,261 30,858

Prussia 323,21940,133

11,434 54,124 4,021 435,934 450,015 racter, it can only be a pastoral one.

Holland 218,137 5,572 146 2,467 4,205 260,527 235,284 Saxony presents, in its rock masses and its mineral Belgium . 129,667 10,663 2,742 5,716 155,588 64,813

Spain . . 124,249 16,710 20,918 211,033 8,451 220 381,581 424,433 wealth, similar conditions to those which prevail in Portugal. 68,759 3,300 77 45,359 12,742, 1,115 138,018 147,147 Devon and Cornwall.

188,657 9,762 14,163 158,920 47,358 418,860521,760

Mediter'n 77,209 2,437 27,768 242,886 15,536 365,836 389,021 Norway, from an agricultural point of view, is to Greece 8,614

328 5,197 22,063 2,138 150 38,490 29,642 Northern Europe what the Highlands of Scotland are Turkey 85,308 4,723 6,071 137,408 7,878 2,920 244,308 234,565 to Great Britain; its rocks, however, contain some of Africa, 235,411 6,717 15,444 244,680 15,290 5,540 523,082 408,788

Australia. 2,667
2,444 1,656 50, 1,578

8,515, 18,356 he richest deposits of iron ore in the world.

E. Indies. 287,625 5,148 317,061 290,422 59,557 30,473 990,286 660,086

W. Indies 40,768 2,998 53,791 219,512 76,880 5,319 429,298 488,193 GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE MINERALS RAISED AND METALS N America 77,369 8,756 65,398 68,093 56,349' 1,211 277,176 312,272 PRODUCED IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND IN 1867, EX

S.America 51,474 2,507 92,689 324,453 55,824 8,950 535,907 687,446 TRACTED FROM THE “MINING RECORDS."

ISLANDS :

Channel 62,363 1,467 1,397 5,785 1,936 72,943 67,749
MINERALS.
Quantities. Value. Heligoland

Iceland
928
235 199 1,377

2,730 1,595 Azores

3731
3,747

493 5,811 2,931 Tons.


Canaries

6,823

812

7,906 11,317 Coal 104,500,180 26,125,145 Madeira

4,085

12,028 783

16,846 11,054 Iron Ore 10,021,058 3,210,098 Ascension 1,253

5,452

6,744 Tin Ore.

13,619 694,784
St. Helena 1,036

1,755 Copper Ore

158,544

Falkland 699,693

015

70 Lead Oro

N.Zealand * 93,432

3,969

2,720 1,218
1,158,066
Sandwich
120

3201 Zinc Ore

13,489 41,345

Society
Total Value

£31,929,076 Totals . 4,813,793 379,610 678,701 3,053,539 765,803 70,2489,761,827 9,367,881

from

Total
1807

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LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.–XVIII.

FOREIGN TRADE (continued;.

October 1st. Paid for Dock Dues, etc., on Sugar per the Ballarat £5 19 6

2nd. Paid Tuelon and Co. their Bill of Parcels

£33 10 0 Received discount at 21 per cent, on do.

0 16 9 Paid William Phillips his Bill of Parcels

256 15 6 Received discount at 5 per cent. on do.

12 16 9 Paid Thomas Barker his Bill of Parcels .

250 16 6 Received discount at 5 per cent, on do..

12 10 10

3rd. Received of Peter Hutchinson and Co., of Liverpool, the

following Remittances in Bills : No. 613, dated Aug. 12 on T. Salomons, due Oct. 15 £100 0 614, J. Sidney,

150 0 18 L. Dixon,

21

1207 6 616, W. Turner,

170 0 0 20 B. Hoole,

200 0 618, D. Hughes

140 0

4th. Paid W. Silver and Co: their Bill of Parcels

£87 10 0 Received discount at 2) per cent. on do.

2 3 9

4th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 560, on N. Johnson . £12G0 0 0

5th. Accepted a Bill drawn this day by W. Smith and Co., No. 150, payable to J. Masterman and Co. at 4 months £673 12 0

6th. Received of John Roberts, of Jamaica, the following

Remittances in Bills : No. 619, dated Aug. 20th, on R. Payne, at 3 months £200 0 0 620, T, Bevan,

200 0 0 621, N. Allison,

200 0 0 622, Sept. 1st. 3. Stone,

950 0 0 623, B. Hulme,

0 0 W. Alexander

576 10 0

8th. Sold per William Knight and Co., at pullic sale, 7 hhds. of Sugar per the Ballarat, net 78 cwt., at 60s.

£231 0 0 Due to them for Brokerage at 1 per cent.

2 6 9

8th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 611, J. Harris .

£380 0 0

10th. Paid for freight of Coffee per the Wellington

£12 15 0

11th, Received in Cash for Bill No. 561, on W. Benson. £1000 0 0

12th. Paid for duties and fecs on Coffee per Wellington .

£3 4 6

12th.
Accepted a Bill drawn by Schofield, Halse, and Co., of

Jamaica, dated 30th July, 1867, No. 151, payable to W.
Bright, London, at 90 days' sight

£175 10 0

14th, Paid dock dues, etc., on Coffee, per Wellington

C12 11 1

15t!. Received cash for Bill No. 613, on T. Salomons

£100 0 0 Do. do. J. Siduey

150 0 0

16th.
Accepted a Bill drawn by Fox, Tennant, and Co., datet

Liverpool, 7th Oct., 1867, No. 152, payable to J. Halifax,
London, at 15 days' date

£73 15 0

18th. Accepted a Bill drawn by R. Heathfield, on account of T.

Ellis and Sons, dated Liverpool, 15th Oct., 1867, No. 153, payable to S. Cattley, Londov, at one month £132 10 0

20th. Sold per William Knight and Co., at public sale, 14 tierces of Coffee, per Wellington, Net cwt. 76 : 0 : 22, at 121s. 6d.

£162 17 9 Discount 1 per cent.

4 12 7

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22nd. Paid Bill No. 152, J. Halifax .

S73 15 0

23rd. Paid public sale charges on Coffee per Wellington .

21 7 6

23rd. Received in Cash for Bill No. 617, on B. Hoole

£290 00 Do. do. 618, D. Hughes

1

0 0 Do, do. Gibbs and Co.

500 0 0

2{th. Received of Schofield, Halse, and Co., of Jamaica, the

following Remittances in Bills: No. 625, dated Aug. 4, on R. Kirkman, at 3 months

223 0 0 626, 4, T. Griffiths, 3

200 0 0 4, N. White, 3

200 0 0

25th.
Received of Richard Sykes, of Barbadoes, the following

Remittances in Bills :
No. 628, dated Sept. 6th, on W. Currie, at 3 months

CO 0 0 6th, J. Overton, S

:

100 0 0

26th, Received from Peter Hutchinson and Co., a Bill drawn

by R. Farrar, Belfast, No. 630, dated Oct. 18th, on W. O'Callaghan, Dublin, to the order of S. Richards, at 2 months

350 00

28th. Received from Richard O'Brien and Co., a Bill drawn by

D. Anderson, Cork, No. 631, dated Oct. 21st, on T. Charrington, London, to the order of W. Whitmore, at 1 month.

£135 0 0

29th, Took out of Cash for Petty Cash

£20 0 0 November 1st. Received from Thomas Brown and Co., a Bill drawn by

T. Chandler, Falmouth, No. 632, dated Oct. 24th, on W Coles, Plymouth, to the order of J. Noyes, at 2 months

£200 0 0

4th, Paid Bill No. 141, Robarts and Co..

£5) 0 0 , 142, Thomas Riley

200 0 0

4th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 610, Kenuard and Co. £1000 0 0

4th. Paid Bill No. 147, J. Wilson

£200 0 0 119, T. Carr

200 0 » 119, S. Curtis

200 0 0

7th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 625, R. Kirkman

£210 0 0 626, T. Griffiths

200 0 0 » 627, N. White

200 0 0

8th. Received of William Knight and Co. their proceeds of Sugar, per the Ballarat

£:34 0 0 Paid their Brokerage ou ditto

2 69

9th, Received in Cash for Bill No. 504, on R. Drett

L90 0 0 505, W. Wrags

630 5 0

10th, Received in Cash for Bill No. 612, W. Melville

£576 15 0

12th. Paid in Caslı for Premiums of Insurance due since Juno last

£1SSO 15 0

14th, Received for £3,000 of Threejier Cents. stock, sold at 93) per cent.

L2376 5 0

16th, Paid Bill No. 140, R. Hastie and Co.

L60 0 0

17tb. Received for Exchequer Bills transferred

£2500 0 0

18th. Paid Bill No. 153, S. Cattley.

9102 10 0

19th. Paid Bill No. 144, Barnett and Co..

L200 0 0 „ 145, Davis and Co.

200 0 0

22nd. Received of W. Knight and Co. their proceeds of Coffee, per the Wellington

2676 5 6 Paid them for Brokerage on ditto

6 16 7

23rd. Received in Cash for Bill No. 619, R, Payne

L200 0 0 „ 691, T. Bevan

200 0 0 » 021, N. Allison.

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0 0 24th, Received in Cash for Bill No. 031, T. Charrington . £135 0 0

1)

6 16 7

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