« AnteriorContinuar »
Chapter I. Of the Requisites of Production.
1. Requisites of production, what...
2. The function of labor defined....
3. Does nature contribute more to the efficacy of labor in some
occupations than in others?....
4. Some natural agents limited, others practically unlimited, in
Chapter II. Of Labor as an Agent of Production.
1. Labor employed either directly about the thing produced, or in
operations preparatory to its production.....
2. Labor employed in producing subsistence for subsequent la-
in the protection of labor....
6. — in the transport and distribution of the produce..
7. Labor which relates to human beings...
8. Labor of invention and discovery...
2. - which are of three kinds...
3. Productive labor is that which produces utilities fixed and em-
6. Labor for the supply of Productive Consumption, and labor
4. All other labor, however useful, is classed as unproductive.. 49
5. Productive and Unproductive Consumption.....
Chapter V. Fundamental Propositions respecting Capital.
3. Increase of capital gives increased employment to labor, with-
4. Capital is the result of saving.
5. All capital is consumed....
6. Capital is kept up, not by preservation, but by perpetual repro-
Chapter VI. On Circulating and Fixed Capital.
1. Fixed and Circulating Capital, what....
2. Increase of fixed capital, when at the expense of circulating,
might be detrimental to the laborers.
7. Why countries recover rapidly from a state of devastation....74
8. Effects of defraying government expenditure by loans.
9. Demand for commodities is not demand for labor...
Chapter VII. On what depends the degree of Productiveness
I. Land, labor, and capital, are of different productiveness at
2. Causes of superior productiveness. Natural advantages...........
superiority of intelligence and trustworthiness in the com-
Chapter VIII. Of Co-operation, or the Combination of Labor.
1. Combination of Labor a principal cause of superior produc-
2. Effects of separation of employments analyzed...
4. The higher degrees of the division of labor...
5. Analysis of its advantages...
Chapter IX. Of Production on a Large, and Production on a
1. Advantages of the large system of production in manu-
2. Advantages and disadvantages of the joint-stock principle... 134
3. Conditions necessary for the large system of production. 139
4. Large and small farming compared....
Chapter X. Of the Law of the Increase of Labor.
1. The law of the increase of production depends on those of
three elements, Labor, Capital, and Land.....
2. The Law of Population......
3. By what checks the increase of population is practically
3. Examples of deficiency in the strength of this desire.
Chapter XII. Of the Law of the Increase of Production from
1. The limited quantity and limited productiveness of land, the
real limits to production.....
2. The law of production from the soil, a law of diminishing
return in proportion to the increased application of labor
Chapter XI. Of the Law of the Increase of Capital.
1. Means and motives to saving, on what dependent.......... 159
2. Causes of diversity in the effective strength of the desire of
3. Antagonist principle to the law of diminishing return; the
progress of improvements in production.
Chapter XIII. Consequence of the foregoing Laws.
1. Remedies when the limit to production is the weakness of
the principle of accumulation.....
2. Necessity of restraining population not confined to a state of
- nor superseded by free trade in food.
Chapter II. The same subject continued.
1. The institution of property implies freedom of acquisition by
the validity of prescription..
the power of bequest, but not the right of inheritance.
4. Should the right of bequest be limited, and how?................
5. Grounds of property in land, different from those of property
6. — only valid on certain conditions, which are not always real-
Chapter III. Of the Classes among whom the Produce is dis-
I. The produce sometimes shared among three classes.
2. The produce sometimes belongs undividedly to one....
Chapter IV. Of Competition and Custom.
1. Competition not the sole regulator of the division of the
1. Slavery considered in relation to the slaves....
2. Slavery in relation to production....
3. Emancipation considered in relation to the interest of the
Chapter VI. Of Peasant Proprietors.
1. Difference between English and Continental opinions respect-
2. Evidence respecting peasant properties in Switzerland.
Chapter VII. Continuation of the same subject.
I. Influence of peasant properties in stimulating industry....
3. in promoting forethought and self-control.
4. Their effect on population......
1. Nature of the metayer system, and its varieties...
1. Nature and operation of cottier tenure....
2. In an overpeopled country its necessary consequence is nomi-
3. which are inconsistent with industry, frugality, or restraint
1. Wages depend on the demand and supply of labor-in other
words, on population and capital...
2. Examination of some popular opinions respecting wages.. 329
3. Certain rare circumstances excepted, high wages imply re-
2. — would require as a condition, legal measures for repression
3. Allowances in aid of wages.
I. Pernicious direction of public opinion on the subject of popu-
Of Popular Remedies for Low Wages.
1. A legal or customary minimum of wages, with a guarantee of
2. Grounds for expecting improvement..
3. Twofold means of elevating the habits of the laboring people:
4. and by large measures of immediate relief, through foreign
1. Differences of wages arising from different degrees of at-
tractiveness in different employments....
2. Differences arising from natural monopolies.
3. Effect on wages of a class of subsidized competitors.....
4. — of the competition of persons with independent means of
5. Wages of women, why lower than those of men.
6. Differences of wages arising from restrictive laws, and from
7. Cases in which wages are fixed by custom.
1. Profits resolvable into three parts; interest, insurance, and
2. The minimum of profits; and the variations to which it is
3. Differences of profits arising from the nature of the particu-